Sexuality and Popular Culture

SMF 215 - Winter 2018 - University of Waterloo

Dr. Jane Nicholas

Lecture 1: Jan 4, 2018

Lecture 2: Jan 9, 2018

Popular culture is not an object, it's a place we're usd to living in.

Definitions are descriptive and include a sexual aspect.

Sexy is hard to define. They're your tastes and proclivities. Are they true reflections of your tastes and feelings? Is it programmed?

Mass/pop culture and sexy.

The study of pop culture is a study of power.

We're surrounded by sex and sexuality. Celebrity culture, magazines, talk shows, etc.

It works in advertising as it plays on modern concepts of sexuality. From the 1830s to today.

Sexuality is an essential piece of identity. It's a critical part of who people are.We draw on categories to make sense of who we are. Sexuality almost never stands alone in identity, it intersects with age, gender, race, etc. We take an intersectional approach - the categories often meet.

18th-19th century - new emphasis on sexuality. Started in Europe, colonialism. There are still languages that don't have a term for "sexuality". But people have always been engaging in sexual activities. We're not talking about sex. Sexuality refers to identity, how people make sense of erotic experiences. As much about culture as it is about society. It's shaped by social and political forces. Sexuality, sex, and gender are closely interwined. It forms a matrix that defines norms.

What is Culture?

What is popular?

It's not a fixed thing. Popular is a contested field of products and practices. It's taste. People have debates about it. It includes morals, judgements, and values. Forces and processes shape our understanding of what pop culture is.

It reflects an experience of culture. Emerges in a capitalist consumer society (where we don't produce what we need, but we buy what we need). It's also shaped by the technology of mass media (newspaper, radio, television, internet). It blurs the two meanings of pop culture. It's not high or folk, it's a combination of all of these things together. Pop culture is a (contested) sight of meaning-making practice.

Cultural Studies

Cultural studies is a wider umbrella. Can't avoid culture. Richard von Krafft-Ebing - sexologist. Wrote a book on sexual disorders - Psychopathia sexualis - for medical and legal professions. A quote from the book describes lesbianism, and basically defines homesexuality.

Studying pop culture is like studying capitalism. The economic system is based on private ownership of the means of production and distrubtion. It's geared towards profit. The economy and culture linked. The goal is to sell you things. When you watch an ad and you didn't know you needed it until you saw the ad. Culture and economy share the examination of cultural practices as they relate to power.

Mass Culture

Mass Culture - synonymous with popular culture. But they're not the same. Mass culture is derogatory. If you like mass culture, it means you're boring. Popular culture is a shared experience. Mass culture is culture provided for profit by a vertically integrated factory system (company owns the entire supply chain) for a large and diverse audience. Mass culture started breaking down with Market segmentation - markets used to be a whole, but now there are different segments. Cater to the child, soccer mom, ethnic consumer, etc.

Identity Politics

Identity politics is the practice of basing one's politics on a sense of personal identity. Female or male, gay or straight.A tool to build a cohesive political community. It's identity with a political movement. You need to claim the identity. Pros: it encourages new political groupings and new visiblity (disabilities). Cons: Fractured, hard to merge different groups. There's stunded analysis if it's just a statement as opposed to an interrogation. Problematic essentialism - the experience only speaks for itself.

Lecture 3: Jan 10, 2018

Discussion - reactions to text in general and stuff to discuss. Issue around generational conflict - textbook doesn't cover. Shakespeare vs. Madonna. Third spaces - Starbucks. Coffee. Go for the experience. Sense of agency. Paradynamics. Anything can be a text - even a store. Popular culture vs. art. More education -> more likely you are to attend an art gallery - an elite space. There's a price on culture. Cost. Opera house - intimidating - I'm not this person. Class hierarchy that mimics culture hierarchy. Popular defined as homogenous, more common, lower brow - all class judgements. Americanization of popular culture. Stereotypes become part of culture. The hockey thing.

Popular culture: Whatever is popular is profitable. Internet - it's free, but you give up privacy, data. Free for the user - democratization of culture. Spinoffs from the media - toys, clothing, jewelry. Authenticity - pop culture is superficial - I don't wanna buy jewelry from mall, wanna buy from local artisan -> more authentic - tastes and money. If you have a folk culture, and it's popularized, you lose the authenticity. We're tools of the industry - we take what we get and we're thankful for it - we think it's our own choice. Culture industry thesis - other side - culture has to resonate with the poeple who its directed towards. Popular culture x Creativity x Economy - file sharing.

Napster - first big filesharing system. Filesharing came from changes in systems. Introduction of CDs - required new systems - said price will come down, but it didn't. Interplay between consumers and industry - two way street, not just top-down.

Another element of popular culture: Intersectional between political and pop culture. Pride events - tied to popular culture. Trump - from reality TV - The Apprentice - how people become household names. Oprah - Golden Globes. Brian Adams - Canadian musician - crossed over to American markets - movie with Kevin Costner - Brian Adams sang themesong - did not count as Canadian Content - because you needed Canadian producers/writers. Nationalism - national identity.

Popular culture is a wave - starts small, goes up, down. Caught up with it. Easy to swim with than against. Ex. Toronto - cosmopolitan now. Basic if with wave, or hipster if against. Subcultures get taken in with the wave.

What's "folk" culture? Tied to a particular community. In opposition to mass culture. Folk culture is seen as being expressed or relayed generationally. You have to be part of the culture to have it passed down to it. Not a faceless mass. Folk culture is internal and small. Folk culture -> mass culture - rap music - emerging from South Bronx - now a billion dollar industry. Cultural appropriation - take folk culture, strip of location, and absorb into mass. Some say folk culture is better, but that's a debate. "The culture of everyday life." The definition of pop culture now relies on anthropology - more anthropological than capitalistical, literary, morality. 3 important things of pop uclture as everyday life: 1. mass media - a part of it, not split, 2. meaning-making - make things meaningful, production of sense and social value - taste. 3. Highlights the issue of power.

Why we should study popular culture. Criticism - we all consume blindly. pop culture helps you denaturalize processes we're caught up in every day by making them meaningful. Cultural appropriation. Fashion - tied to what people think makes them sexy or "exotic." Some criticism - you're just training people to be better consumers. Frankfurt school - people are mindless consumers and that's what's wrong with the world. Others - people can buy things and be thoughtful about it.

Commodity fetish - Coffee. Karl Marx. Meanings on material objects. Objects imbued with magical qualities. Fetish is a fixation, something that will give you pleasure. Particular commodities are imbued with same magical qualities. Shoes. Followers, likes, hashtags. Barbecueing. Children looking like adults. "This will make things correct" Make up - brow gel is $80, but the actual product is not worth that much - no logical connection.

Tim HOrtons vs. Starbucks - brand is close with identity. Tim Hortons person or a Starbucks person - cosmopolitan, international.

Lecture 4: Jan 16, 2018


Ideology - difficult to define. The background ideas that we possess about the way the world must function and how we must function within it. It's just the way things are. These ideas have a material existence. They directly connect to our lives and how we operate.

Goldstein's definition: ideology is a system possessing its logic and proper rigour of representations, image,s smyths, ideas or concepts endowed with an exisence and a historical role at the heart of a given society. A system of representations at the heart of a given society. Values and asusmptions are implicit, and form a shared heart to society. Origins - Marx and Ingles - Marxism - philosophy was broad - ideology itself represents the production of ideas, conceptions, and consciousness. Ideology is all that men say, imagine, and conceive. Ideology was very broad - laws, politics, morality, and religion. It is a Superstructure - the critical piece of the functioning of an entire society. If society is a house, ideology is the frame of the house, not a piece of it, but the entire essential part of it. The dominant ideology of any period/era was always the ideology of the ruling class - the ruling ideas, the dominant ideas - whoever controls the means of production are the ones who have their ideology broadened across society. False consciousness - ideology is a means of social control. It's a way that the ruling class socially controls the working class (classes beneath them). The subordinate classes have false consciousness because they believ ein the world view of the ruling class, even though that world view is not in their benefit. Religion was the opium of the masses. Religion was this drug. Protestantism - industrialism -> protestant work ethic - if you work really hard in this life, you will be rewarded in heaven. Life will be terrible for you, but heaven will be great. Workers are taking on their worldview against their own needs.

    Antonio Gramsci:
  1. Common sense - ideology often masquerades as common sense. Because it's so implicit so you think there's no judgement there, you think there's no differences between class, etc. practical everyday popular consciousness of human beings. Obviously true or common to everyone, normative. "Well, that's just common sense." Flushing the toilet. Looking both ways before you cross the street. It's allegedly common sense that if you can see your legs, you can go into that bathroom. Bathroom signs. But it's not common sense. How common sense gets formed. Contradictory body of beliefs that are unified into social common sense. Stuart Hall - working from Gramsci - common sense that combines elements fromt he stone age and principles of a more advanced science, prejducices form all the past histories, at the local level, and intuitions of a future philosophy which will be that from the human race united the world over. It's part history, philosophy. We selectively take peices of history, then say this is how it's always been.
  2. Hegemony - hegemonic - coercion as opposed to force. Not that rulign class forces you to believe it, there's a gentle coercive power at play at getting people on side with a particular worldview. For Gramsci, idea of class is messier. Member sof the working class will believe in the ideology of the ruling class - it's not that they don't know, it's that they still believe -> hegemony. Ordinary people come to be persuaded of specific worldviews. Crucial question: how ideology gets to be believed and lived out? A combination of coercion and consent.


Heteronormativity - can be seen as ideology. When did you decide you were heterosexual? When did you start telling people. When did you sit down with your parents and say "I'm heterosexual." It's the assumed norm. It's common sense. Homosexuality was illegal until 1969 in Canada. Adrian Rich - compulsory heterosexuality - is the presumed sexual preference, has cultural dominance, if you don't identify - you're in a deviant other. They are institutionalized. Heterosexuality is something that has to be imposed, managed, organized, propragandized and maintained by force.

Heteronormativity is broader than who you seek sexual activity with. The received wisdom in straight culture, is that all of its different norms line up, that one is synonymous with the others. If you are born with male genitalia, the logic goes, you will behave in masculine ways, desire women, desire feminine women, desire them exclusively, have sex in what are thought to be normally active and insertive ways and within officially sanctioned contexts, think of yourself as heterosexual, identify with other heterosexuals no matter how tolerant you might wish to be, and never change any part of this package from childhood to senescence. Heterosexuality is often a name for this entire package, even though attachment to the other sex is only one element. If you deviate at any point from this program, you do so at your own cost. And one of the things straight culture hates most is a sign that the different parts of the package might be recombined in an infinite number of ways. But experience shows that this is just what tends to happen. If heterosexuality requires the entire sequence, then it is very fragile. No wonder it needs so much terror to induce compliance. - Michael Warner (The Trouble with Normal) Not just about sex. Wider in terms of sexuality. How you identify, who you identify with, who you settle down with, what types of sex you have. This whole package is never supposed to change. The privileging of a particular relationship - manogamous heterosexual marriage - normal and natural. Myths and mythologies. Disney princesses. Religion. Rom coms. His and hers. One token representation in a tv show. Children - son: "who you gonna marry when you grow up?" - only ever a little girl. "By the time you grow up, marriage will be dead anyways. Dont worry." Children's clothing. "no homo" - complement a man and instantly reaffirm your sexuality.

Honeymoon. HG Wells toured Niagara Falls 1905. The spot for honeymoons. Described the falls as an alibi for honeymooners. a thunderous impressive accessory to the artless love-making that fills the surrounding hotels

Origins of the honeymoon - a trip after marriage. Alone together. First critical time together. Cement relationship through various sexual practices. Come home expecting a child. In the 1800s: "A bridal tour" - largely an upper class custom, you needed money. The bride and groom and some relatives would travel around to various relatives who couldn't get to the wedding. Concern: too rigorous of travel, for the bride who was responsible for planning, too much stress, too much public attention for that new couple.

Idea developed: private honeymoon. The need to get away from prying eyes - need to go somewhere in nature - distant and less public. Natural, beautiful spots for honeymoons. Reconcile the public embarassment of becoming sexual beings - not supposed to flaunt sex. 1920s - Niagara + honeymoon gets mass marketed - little bits. Big marketing post WW2. Lots of heteronormativity - return to normal after the war. And a need to honeymoon to cement your relationship. Celebrities coming to visit, etc. The meaning of the falls - a religious baptism and there's excitement. Cleansing propertis of water and enticing excitement with all of the water. Nagara was gendered and sexualized as female. "Doing Niagara." Sexualization of a place.

Film - Marilyn Monroe - Niagara (1952) - about two couples - marilyn monroe is having an affair on her husband while she's at Niagara with him. She's seducitively posed, as one finds themselves on a stone wall. [Marilyn Monroe - movie trailer] Overlapping of her body, sex, suspense, with honeymoon and the space. A rising rate of marriages. Inspired people to go on their honeymoon at the Falls. 1 year after movie released, 10 million people visited the Falls. With Travel boom - cheaper to travel, people are getting married younger.

There's a wider ideological investment in this type of relationship. You had to have a normal honeymoon to have a proper marriage. Heterosexual marriages produced children, and children are the future. Doctors, psychiatrists, marriage counselors/experts. Sexual compatibility - cement of a marriage. Honeymoons were a foundation point for sexual compatibility - give people the right script for a good honeymoon. "A bad honeymoon may cause lifelong impotence for men, especially for men who are mama's boys who fear women." Lysol - initially sold as a liquid preperation for feminine hygiene. Douche with Lysol. The natural you was a you that used this concentrated germ killer as a douche. You had to have every preparation. "A bad honeymoon wrecked 3 out of 5 marriages." Bad honeymoons cause nervous/mental disorders. There's not enough therapy afterwards to pull you out of this deficit. Innocent -> sexual person. Assumption that people were showing up at Niagara as virgins. Script giveen to people to avoid a tragedy of marriage. Long and healthy marriage -> healthy societies and nation. Men were supposed to be oversexed and overinterested in sex. Women supposed to be disinterested but willing to do their duty. Men told that this was their hour.

Problem with script: rapey. Popular image: men were to act like cavemen, supposed to act like brutes. And women are supposed to be willing to give in. Dangerous script. According to modern sex experts of the period - women were responsible for men's brutality. Lois Pemberton - after hearing about honeymoon rape - didn't know who to pity more. This is the script developed by experts at the time. Other side of problem: if the roles were reversed - timid man and oversexed woman - allegedly there could be problems. Ralph and Laura - ralph had insecurity, laura took over during sex - slept as fat apart as possible - 10 yrs later, psychiatrist sees -> script must be followed.

Women told not to refuse sex. "She has not to do, but to merely exist." Lie there. Lay down and have sex for the queen (make babies).

New disease: vaginismus. Honeymoon shock. 1950s. Husbands not providing a proper atmosphere. Medicalizaiton of the honeymoon. Both should have a medical examination pre-honeymoon. 70% of men and 50% of women acquired a book on sex life for their honeymoon. Idea: heterosexuality is natural and normal. It's clearly not common sense if you have experts trying to find out what the proper script is. Compulsory heterosexuality rises. In this period, you're supposed to return to normal. Appropriate heterosexual behaviour - important building block for the nation - sex education in post-war period. Lots of emphasis on heterosexuality. Honeymoon - important for everyone - to produce proper families.

Lecture 5: Jan 18, 2018

Text - general overview.

Ideology - Ideas and values sahred bt a common population. Often not conscious. Just the way things are - just common sense. Usually a dominant class - dominant ideology comes from this class - morals and values. Dominant ideology is connected to the dominant class. False consciousness - people will take on this dominant ideology and believe in something that is contradicting their own interests - work hard and you will go to heaven. Religion is the opium for the people.

Antonio Gramsci revised ideology - one of the floors of ideology is common sense, other is philosophy. It's so naturalized and normalized through the process of history. Human beings are forgetful beings. Hegemony - top down and bottom up force. Coercion and consent. Soft power and also consent to it.

British History - Conformity of dancing - heteronormativity. Pubs as community spaces. Why is the pub so important? Public and private. Inbetween space. A place where lower class could become middle class for a cheap price. Beer in the pub was of a better quality than the water you could drink.

Why was class needed? Recognition of a need for leisure. They needed it to make better workers. You can't work them to death. Give them a break and they will come back refreshed. Rational recreation. Enclosure of public lands - used to have wide spots, enclosured -> less and less space. Then places like pubs were good.

Rational Recreation - had a working class street culture - loafing. Blood sports - animals. Vagrancy, trespassing, etc. Removed the culture form the streets and put it somewhere more reasonable. Matthew Arnold - expose people to the best that has been thought nd known in the world - but this was middle class values - imposed down.

The shift of popular culture is the shift in the economy - shift encapsulated in the industrialization. Mass industry in factroies in urban centres. City pops up around the factory. Fordism - people not manufacturing an entire product - whole assembly line is broken down - do I care about this product? No. It makes goods faster to produce, cheaper to sell to the people. Relationship of worker and thing has changed. Thus, leisure time is really important to keep you going. Stop people from drinking on the job. Modes of production - changed. Rising middle-class - capitalist class that owns/controls the modes of the production.

O Doll Divine

Mary Pickford - America's sweetheart, Canadian. Child actress, grows up but her roles don't grow up. Childlike, adolescent-like. Adolescence is a new category. She was powerful in Hollywood. Part of the film industry - business side. She was mature. Multiple marriages.

What does Studler argue about Mary Pickford? "New Woman" - a certain type of woman that appeared in 1910s - demanded education, right to vote -> Flapper - flighty young woman who's sexually out there. Here is a woman, but not a contemporary. Cultural pedophelia. Nostalgia for the victorian period - all of the attractive qualities of a child in a woman. Pedophelic gaze - it doesn't go away. Birth of youth culture in this time.

Children/girlhood and power - freedom, free of family, etc. Escapist. Orphan. Child outside of the family.

Cultural pedophilia - 386. Child-woman - nostalgic idea of feminity. What women were in the good old days. Carries onto the 20th century - youthful/child-looking people. Beauty pageants. Flipper - fake teeth - adult-like teeth - high heels, bathing suit, etc. Daddies and little girls.

361 - eroticization of female innocence. taking away the innocence. Being someone's first time. Back then, children were wicked. New formulation of childhood innocence. Origins of child-woman. James Cincaved - sacred chiild was also an eroticization - hugely controversial - you are promoting pedophilia - innocence gets sexuality.

Write a multiple choice question -

Discussion day - Chapter 2: critical info. Studtler -

How was Mary Pickford's role in her family different from the role of women in family at that time? a) She was the breadwinner b) She had more power, say, and status than her husband did c) She took care of her mother d) All of the above

What's the diff between pedophilic gaze and cultural pedophelia.

Advertisement - tween - suggestion she's naked. You know you're not the first, but do you really care. Pre-owned BMW cars.

Lecture 6: Jan 23, 2018

Postmodernism added a serious challenge when it emerged in the 1970s and has shaped the social sciences and humanities. It's an odd subject - broad rubric that includes any number of theories and thinkers under a broad umbrella category. Lots of ideas from theorists. It's often conflated with poststructuralism (especially in angloamerican literature). They overlap but do reference separate things. Heterogenous group. Poststructuralism affected many streams - philosophy, literary theory. Serious debate - poststructuralism vs. marxism. Poststructuralism has a focus on language - discourse and representation. There's no independent reality beyond discourse and representation. At the very basis, according to prostructuralists, we are always held at the surface of representation, and this is where all meaning is made - there's nothing deeper than that. Discourse - expressed in a system of language, including both words and images. A system of representation - it conveys meaning and produces knowledge. "Taking under a discourse of ____" - how power operates through linguistic constructions. The critical piece: the meaning of a text is always uncertain and unstable. You can have no definitive reading/truth. There's only many small T truths as opposed to one large bit T truth.

To understand poststructuralism, have to understand structuralism.

Postmodernity. Theory cards. Romeo and Juliet - postmodern tape of R+J. Grand theories/ideas get critiqued from within. After modernity or late modernity? Different from PS. PM is a broader category - focus is on representation, not reality. PM is a time period. Post WW2 (or a little later) - prior, people believed in things like scitinfic progress, things would get better, we are slowly climbing, science and technology will get us there. PM - skepticism of universal getting there - but science/tech was evil - nuclear bomb, holocaust. PM was originally used in architecture.

Modern architecture - skyscrapers, mass housing, machine asthetic. Postmodern architecture - juxtaposed dichotimies - jumbled it all up - opposites thrown together. Outsides and insides blurring together, old and new. Difficulty of reading architecture. We see images everywhere - our world is just a jumble of things and images - not clear. Postmodernism describes a rejection of art. Modernism was based on the premise that artists had a special gifted standing in society and could use special skills to access hidden truths about the human condition - the impressionists could give you the feeling of the landscape. Postmodernist artists - do not believe it's possible to undercover these deep meanings - we are constantly at the surface, at the level of representation (as opposed to somewhere deeper). Barbara Kruger - magazines and advertisements. Taking what she's criticizing and using it in her criticism. Criticizing advertising and womens magazines. You are not yourself. Your body is a battleground. A critique using what it is critiquing. Sociologists and philosophers extended the term to cover all of contemporary society.

Jean Francois Leotard - The Postmodern Condition - book - modern phase of history had given way to postmodernity - because of changes in capitalism. The nature of capitalism was different - capitalism under modernity produced useful things like cars and food. Post modern capitalism produces images. Shift from producing useful things to images. Not because they're useful, but because of their cultural meaning. Brand shoes. Television. Unboxing videos. Beer - A Guinness a Day - Guinness is Good for you - early 20th century guinness beer - selling you the product and that it's good for you. Different style - green with envy - not selling a product that is useful/good, if people see you drinking it, they will be jealous.

French philopspher Jean Baudrillard - Postmodernist capitalism overproduces images. Reality is always inaccessible. We can never get below an overproduction of images. Perceptions are shaped by television, advertisements, computer screens. Because of tech advances, the X war was exclusively images for Americans - constant bombardment of images. Can never actually get to reality. See 100 images, have a tiny amount of information. Severing between representation and reality.

Modernity Postmodernity
Rationality - just need to rationalize through it Irrationality
Progress Eclecticism - fuzzy
Order - everything perfectly in line Disorder/discontinuity/chaos
Humanism - humans are at the center of the world Death of the subject - displacement of humans at the center of all narratives
Historicism - workign through human history to get to a better place end of history - end of all conflict

Last 25 years, post-structuralism. Dash - the post doesn't necessarily mean rejecting structuralism - after structuralism. Semiotics - the reading of signs. Advertising - semiotics helps us understand that there's a literal meaning and a connotative/implied ucltural meaning. "Green with envy" - is the literal meaning. Green = jealousy. The one is in the center.Read on a number of different levels. Ferdinand Saussure 1913 (death) 2 key points: He wrote his major work and then died on us.

Words associated with masculinity: stoic, strong, dominant, handsome, tall. Femininity - nurturer, beautiful, gentle, petite, fragile, dependant. Opposite. Only in there opposition are they made meaningful.

Brought into study of culture - through Clade Levi Strauss. Anthropologist - Structural Anthropology, The Savage Mind.

Comes along Jacques Derrida - "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of Human Scineces" 1966. 'Of Grammatology" - 1967. Song - Read a page and know what I need to Take apart my baby's heart. The father of deconstruction. End of structuralism. In 1966, JD gave a paper called "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences" (kept on talking even though it should only be 20mins). Critique @ Levi Strauss. Argued that you can't understand a text through structural analysis - it gives a false sense of perminence, stability. Nature vs. Culture - some things belong to each - LS - bumped into a wall trying to explain incest taboo - every culture had one, but what it exactly was ranged from culture to culture. This contradiction undermines the entire foundation of structuralism. Through analysis of deconstruction - taking an analysis to pieces.

Stuart Hall and how people read pop culture. Hegemonic - reading with the grain. Counterhegemonic - read against the grain. Semiotics, the moral panic (students, milennials). All of these relate to this theory. No questions related to Derrida.

Lecture 7: Jan 30, 2018


Cultural production of Images. Our relationship to images.

The Eye: the optic nerve has 18 times more nerve endings than ear. Cones and rods. 1 million different colour combinations. Last sense developed. Constant motion. Eyes are never static. Eyes totally still means you're dead. Two eyes fill in the blind spot where the retina connects to the optical nerve. Brain fills in blind spot. Still capable of 3D Depth. We see less of the spectrum of light. Often fool by sight. If we see but don't know if real, we want to touch it. Eye-witness testimonies that conflict. Most believed, but least accurate. Intensity of looks. Eyes communicate stuff. Cultural cliches - eyes are the window to the soul - stare into their soul. Eyes, images, technology. How technology has shaped/changed the way we see things. Tech has developed different means of spreading images - rapid means, so that we can see without being conscious of it. See images of inside of body - x-ray, ultrasound, endoscopes.

Up until 18th century where people believed that the eyes emitted rays - control things with eyes. Still believe in some cultures. Mesmerized. The evil eye - protection against evil eye - charms to protect. Until 1920s - debated whether or not you could move objects w/ your eyes. One side: I could move hanging object with eye. Other side: You can't move objects, but you can move people. Doctor: people might feel uncomfortable. Our culture has become a culture of the eye. That we live in a profoudnly visual world. Visual culture.

Visual culture: the way we see things is affected by what we know and what we believe in. You can have any number of eyewitnesses see the same thing and come up with different testimony. Back then, sight of fire was a symbol of fire.

An Image is a sight has been recreated or reproduced. (Image of marilyn monroe.) An appearance or set of appearances is detached from place and time. Marilyn - this image appears globally, regardless of when it was taken. Images get dislocated from their site of production. They outlast what's representing in them. MM is dead now, yet we have so many images of her that still exist. Images have a life of their own. Photography has dramatically shifted of what we see and the way we see.

Photography and painting. Images before photography opened up the world to images. Before, you had to transport yourself to see the image - to the museum that has the image. The image comes to you. Theorist: Walter Benjamin - what the camera did was destroy the uniqueness of the image. You no longer have one photograph. Internet. Photocopiers. Changed the way we see things and the way we udnerstand the visual world.

How many have seen Mona Lisa? How many have been to the L at the mona lisa? How many was it the first time at the L? Rather than having to go to see it, we see it first on a screen that's surrounded by all of our things. The first time you saw Mona Lisa on TV screen - surrounded by all of YOUR things. Brought to you. Hey, I'd love to see that in real life - then yeah. You saw the copy before original. The original will aways be in reference to the copy you saw. Not that spectacular.

In these travels (internet), the meaning is diversified. In newspaper, "I fell in love so I stole it" then you go - disoriented. When you see it becaus eyou don't see the first image you just saw, you're overwhelmed/disoriented - so many people. Reaction: hold up our camera to reproduce the first image we saw. Our experiences are referring back to images that we saw.

[Leonardo Da Vinci's The Rocks] If you haven't seen it before, this will be your first reference. Dislocated from place. Reproduction via posters so you can tkae the image home. A work of art like this is defined by its rarity - only one original - there are lots of copies. John Berger - art is now surrounded by a bogous religiousity - that original works of art take the same status as relics - when people put them on the market/galleries, they make sure they're genuine + ceritified. High art becomes sacred. Other types of visual culture, like porn, are not scared. "You can take a screenshot from a porn and try to sell it." Market Value - assume that someone has a higher market value, then sacred.

[Sexually explicit] Art or porn? Jeff Koons. Famous. "Made in Heaven". Wife - pornstar. "Dirty Ejaculation" Low culture of pornography and high culture of art - blended together - the line doesn't work. Criticism: It is our relaitonship on how we see this that is most profound. The machine change sart. Always conversation between high and low.

Walter dvdmvmvm - with age of camera, art no longer exists in the same way as before. There aren't individual pieces of art, not tied to a specific/sacrred spot/time. Art has become ubiquitous. Art loses its individual power. Technology + art: this is a good time, a democratization of culture - we don't have to travel to art. Gallery attendance is tied to education level. The idea we lost capital C culture because of democratization doesn't hold true(??) This religiosity is not that art is sacred, but exclusively tied to how much someone would pay for it. Value based on how much something is worth, someeone is willing to pay for it. Capitalistic way of understanding. Jeff Koonts vs. screenshot pornography - the mark of capitalistic value vs. mark of aesthetics - not necessarily higher aesthetic, spiritiual, value.

Our relationship to images is usually tied to words we use around them. Images float freely and change and swift base don how they're introduced to you. [We field with crows - vincent van gogh] This is the last picture Va Gogh painted before he killed himself.

Lady Gaga - Michel Foucalt. "I was born this way." No, you're a product of power relations." You can take an image and shift its meaning with a few words - Meme. Cats don't speak, but they speak a lot on the internet. User technology - much easier. Internet can shape all of this. Image now illustrates the sentence opposed to sentence capturing image.

Rising gender theory and the gaze Schroeder: "to gaze implies more than to look at - it signifies a psychological relationship of power, in which the gazer is superior to the object of the gaze." The intersection of looking and sexual pleasure. Power relationships - different gazes, different practices of looking. Staring and disability. Casual looking - scanning. Staring - intense. Gazing - not jus tlooking, but it's engaged in power relations. The object of the gaze doesn't necessarily know that they're being looked at. A sense of anonymity. The person doing gazing is in position of power, object doesn't know or is mostly unaware and have less power or no power. Building off of Laura Mulvey - film studies - read from film types of gazing - built from Freudian psychoanalysis - subject and the object - agency vs not - active/male (subject) and passive/female(object). One has a higher status. Subject > object. Freud had a term called scopophilia - pleasure derived from looking at bodies as objects - out of infantile sexuality - mother becomes object of child. Broadens past infant development into the movie theatre - darkness of cinema - gazing - your relationship to the screen - annoying when people chomp, come in late, etc. FAcilitates a condition of looking. In movie house - particular scripts/ideas. Argued that: in film script: active male subjects and the position you are to take on in the film house is the active/male subject, the passive/female object which is the object of pleasure that you watch. Encouraged to identify with the active male subject and see repersentations of women as the passive/female object --> The Male Gaze. Women have turned into images to be looked at. Woman as image. Not just that protagonist is male, bu tthe visual clues set up a male gaze. You take on that male gaze.

John Berger - Ways of Seeing book - "A woman must continually watch herself. She is almost continually accompanied by her own image of herself." One is supposed to be an object, looking at themselves as if they are the object of the gaze. "Women watch themselves being looked at... Thus she turns herself into an object - and most particularly an object of vision: a sight." In images and film, men act, they are the subjects, women appear, and they are the objects.

Mulvey - two types of gazes: Voyeristic - controlling - sadism, male protagonist gets to be the judge - ascertaing uilt, punish someone, give an act of forgiveness. You see everything, judge someone, but they don't know you're in that position. and Fetishistic looking - In the object, becomes something that could be dangerous and instead becomes reassuring. Castration anxiety. The stiletto - often fetishized - dangeorus object, but sexualizing it makes it reassuring and seductive. Erotic becomes a place of safety. Very controversial - not a lot of female agency, essentialist - drive in biology, that all men will appear this way, and all women appear this way. Deeply heterosexual - what about gay spectators? Is it possible for women to derive pleasure from the male gaze? Formulation is too neat - doesn't account for some of the messiness. Whether or not our tases/ideas/gazing are driven by the producer. You will see things the way producers see them.

Oprah yelling you're all basic. Adorno and Horkheimer (1947) - German theorists - post WW2 - the culture-industry thesis. The frankfurt school - Critical theory. Artists tapped into society - creative geniuses - could see into society. They rejected this idea. culture is not the creation of artisans. Culture is a commodity produced through an industrial process of mass production - sounds like Marx. They're marxists. The products of culture reflect only the logic of profit. All of culture is simply designed to make a profit. To make a profit, needs to be easily reproduced and fairly standard - basic. Standardiztion have to fit the modes of production. Produce for everyone, not individuals. Easier to mass produce clothing a set number of sizes and fit into them instead of getting it measured, custom made. Easier to sell lot sof tihngs at a low price than tailro to individuals. Culture becomes something bought and sold - a commodity. Reality TV - Kim Kardashian - what is she famous for? She's famous for being famous. She is herself, a commodity. Cultural production is marked by superifcial novelty. She was preceded by Paris Hilton. Essential repetition - things need to be different enough to spark consumption but not so different to be challenging. Sweaters - sort sweaters - baggy, chunky, cardigan, etc. They're just small changes. Needs to keep selling us stuff. Minor things to get us to buy more. Down in economy, lipstick sales go up - cheap small thing - you can make a new look.

Reality TV - new season of the Bachelor - I wonder if anything will be different. Rom Coms. Girl bands/boy bands. Big machine. The values we all hold are only the values of capitlaism. Important: accumulation of watlh, spendign as a sign of status, financial status is equivalent of human value. Creepy thing: people who are beautiful in contemporary ways often have attributes s being kinder, being better employees. It mines folk culture and high culture and mines them to pieces - destroys them.

People say: this is really elitist. That you can buy your way into culture. Too deterministic. Elitist frontL: it will take great thinkers/people to rip people out of this thing. But maybe people are happy with this. Are we all dupes? If you derive pleasure from it, then who is it to say you're a udpe in the machine?

Lecture 8: Feb 1, 2018

Production of Popular Culture + Nicki Minaj.

Nicki Minaj Music Videos. [Nicki Minaj - Anaconda, SuperBass]

Article - short references to theory. Text - bigger issues around production. Article - production of identity, and production of people.

Black female artists - lifespan of 2 years. Production of Nicki Minajs' identity. She's managed to outlast many women that have come before her. Relationship with Barbie. Diversification of Barbie dolls - the ideal, original barbie, everything is just a variation off of her. Barbie is designed after a German Sex doll, created into a child's toy. Women have reclaimed the word "bitch" - but not really. Politics of words - insider/outsider context - friend callign you a bitch vs. outsider. Is reclamation empowering? Girl power, wear a tube top - is it power or feeding into the system? Barbie - system puts women at a disadvantage, looks, not good at math. Stereotyping. Makes women conform to beauty standards - but you can do anything with them. Producers don't match what consumers do with it. Deface Barbie, or played with barbie with a script that Mattel did not want. Nicki Minaj - big booty - not standard Barbie. Record Companies - a thread that works - just have to follow that one thread - the formula that works - is she part of that formula or is it her own talent? Shifting image vs. playing into it. RIpping heaad off teeth - ozzy osbourne rips head of bat off - freakshow - geek performers - rip heads off of things as a part of their performance. Nicki is also shaming skinny bitches - opposing rather than empowering - skinny-shaming. But it doesn't displace the profoundness of thinness- attacks it but doesn't displace it. Bratz dolls. Ok to call yourself bitch, but not ok to call yourself barbie. Minaj - why can't I? What's so wrong. Postmodern reading - nicki minaj - fabricated this identity to play off of all of these issues - race, gender, sexuality - she's in control even though she's part of the machine. Who has the power in pop culture?

The Culture Industry Thesis - a slightly different variation of a formula. Lady Gaga - madonna, david bowie. A machine that spits out modestly different things. Totalizing - reading backwards, just finding similarities - finding connections. "They're the new X" Reading backwards vs. forwards. Culture is standardized. Clothing. Fashion can't cycle too quickly because people will still have the clothes - has to cycle slow enough so you can decide to throw out current clothes. Celebrity Culture - is different now - market has changed - rather than just selling the film, all of material goods that go with it. Wider market of stuff - an obsession. Artists play off of old songs. Copyrighting - sampling, etc. Keeps lawyers busy.

We are all dupes of this culture machine vs. no. We know what they're doing, but doesn't mean we enjoy it. Adventure Time - everything repeats over and over again, but no one lives long enough to learn anything. Generatiional change - Vanilla Ice - Under Pressure - horrific thing generation had done to music vs. this is the greatest thing. Easier to conform. Geek culture - wasn't cool before, now appropriated. We have to conform. How do you step outside of the machine. Can you drop out of consumer culture/society? Even if you try to take yourself out, you're still proving the original point. Are things being popular because we enjoy them, or because they want us to enjoy them? Is it what we want or what they want we want? Not just the machine pushing out stuff, others will say they will demand and producers will react. Nicki Minaj fans pushed for barbie for her. Consumer backlash, advocacy. Is it top down or in conversation.

American culture comes up here, but some things aren't allowed. Madonna pretending masturbating on stage - toronto police banned. Superhero movies - started out for late youth, now for children - onesies for infants. CocaCola opening up the market to 3 year olds.

We like what we're familiar with.

Opening new markets - uniformity - body ideals, etc. Big Western media pushes outwards. Dove - soap - black women to white woman - colonialism - racism. It wasn't until consumers pushed back did they realize. Anne McClintock - commodity racism - how racism gets carried through goods - soap. LGBTQ in media, but others will say that they're pushing to a new market, publicity. Corporations are not require to care, only respoinsible for making money.

Production needs consumers.

It's not just there, it's a message.

Lecture 9: Feb 6, 2018


Consumerism. Consumption.

5 essential things.

Last week - Western eyes for asians surgery. 40 min documentary. We have these standards that are natural, historical. We're caught up in these power relationships.

WE are all experts of consumerism.

  1. Historically specific - the world existed prior to consumer culture. In the 18th century developing, full shape beginning of 20th century. Before this, people had much closer relationships to the things they consumed because they were involved witht he production. Distanced the production from the consumption. Hard to think differently, hard to think about producing own stuff. Tomato on a pizza - production of it. When you do something yourself, you also attach more value to it. If you grow your own tomatoes, you're not gonna wanna sell them for 1.99 a lbs - sweat blood and tears. Had to fight rats, raccoons, squirrels. Because of the nature of where things are grown and shipped from, tomatoes have to be picked far before they're ripe. It is very different.
  2. What and how we consume has a broader social significance. - If looking at consumerism in strict terms, we'd only look at the exchange. But that's not all of consumerism. Have to go through production, exchange, and goods with you. Broader chain of signification.
  3. We live in a world where we often talk about consumer choice and that consumers want choices. Individual decisions are guided by larger social structures. Around consumption - social class. Class distinction.
  4. Look at consumption rooted in specific sites and ... It's not wholly guided by social structures. You can decide what to consume and what not to consume. Just because you buy, doesn't mean you're going to wear it as they designed it. You can put holes, paint it. There's still some sense of agency.
  5. There's a larger cost to consumerism - social and environmental. Born unevenly. Dif people bear the runts of the costs.

[The Tate Modern] - An art installation. The art is the crack in the floor. Began at western entrance under a garbage can and spread east. Dolores Salcedo - Shibboleth - a word that is pronounced in a way that distinguishes one group or one class from another. comes from the bible - enemies - forced to say the word, but it's not in their dialect. Anyone who can't say it, gets murdered. It's a word that speaks to power and the power to judge. It's not unintended that it starts at west ot east. It's also about coloonialism and racism. Artist statement: the history of ... is postmodernism. This building of a society required widespread exploitation. Salcedo is considered a post-colonial artist. How did she so it? Mystery. Important point: much like the process of imperialism and colonilazation, even after the show closed, the crack would be need to filled in. There will always be a scar that remains.

Cultural appropriation - take a piece of a culture thats not your own, and tke it on. The original thing you're appropriating is still being marginalied. Using it for aesthetic reasons and ignoring significant original values. Stripping it of its meaning and bringing it into your own culture/being for aesthetic reasons. Appreciation vs. Appropriation. Taken out of its culture and commodified. Commodofication and power. Taking out of its original context. Caught up in power relations. Call it culture industry - sexy and fun out of the expense of other people.

Example: Headdress - music festival, victoria secret fashion show. Not any way related to Indigenous people. Sexualization, exoticization - you can appropriate something from a culture to become more exotic.

This is all falls under Post-colonialism. Emerges in writing in the late 1980s. The relationship and the rest. A morphus of theory. Focused on discource. Representation, what's represented and the deeper power structures behind them. Colonialism isn't over. When you say post colonial, you're not talking about after colonialism. It's interested in the scar of the crack. How it continues to haunt the present. Colonialism - vast - historians estimate over 3/4 have had their lives shaped by colonialism. Manipulated traditional powers of authority. Relationships. Altetered exsting social and cultural patterns. Talking about politics, economics, society and culture. Sactionted the spread of Europeans throughout the world on economic an dcultural grounds .Their push for control over the world. They were arguing that they were securing strategic trade groups, to evangelicize (religious beliefs to save peoples souls), to deal with the issue of overpopulation and disperse unwated people. From late 18th-19th century - defined by ideas of race that were emerging. Race is the child of racism, not the father. Scientific discovery of race because of racism - the need to justify race. This idea that emerges - idea that white people are biologically superior. Not true at all. Belief that white people have to be parents to other races - so evolved that all of the other races were like children. It was the responsibility of white europeans to teach civilization and to spread christinaianity. The white man's burden - the idea that white people wre burdened by the fact that they needed to spread civilization, that this was their duty. Picked up by advertising, spread Commodity racism (Ann McClintock). Unlike scientific racism (almost no one could read those), with mass consumerism, you could spread all of these ideas really quickly in images - you dont need to be literate to understand images. Globally, reahc massses of people. Commodity Racism - difference, power, and consumption at the intersection of imperialism and industrialism. Peopl eare saying we need to spread the white doctrine all over the world, you have increasing production, so you also need to sell things - brings together two things - civilize + sell. Pear soap - left: colonial official. The first step to lightening the white mans burden is to teach cleanliness- dark corners of the earth. The ideal toilet. No natural connection between soap cleanliness and civilization. Can spread civilization through cleanliness. Cleanliness is godliness. Irony: pear, palm olive soap were extracted in colonial places, brought to brtish and sell back. Right: two children. white and black child. White - parental role. White child bathing to black child, black childs body turns white. Holds the hierarchy of races - child can never become white, never equal. Soap becomes a common household good because of advertising. Queen Elizabeth I - took a bath once a month whether she needed it. Too clean - weakening body.

Orientalism - name of a book by Edward Said. Opposite of Orient - Occident(west). Look at how the west were constructed as superior. Anything beyond west is inferior. East is the Other. A product of culture, not from history. Essentialism - essential differences that's assigned by history/biology was actually a product of culture. Argues that the west fabricated the Orient. the orient is a consturction of the west, and part of the imagination. It exists in people's minds. Literature, politics, etc, advertising, consumerism. In the creation of Oriented Other, a whole set of values gets attached to the EAst that are dichotomous of the set of value sof WEst. These dichotamous were productive as opposed to descriptive. What values were associated with the west: individualism vs. collectivism. Capitalism, autonomy. People tend to think of the east in terms of cruelty, sensuality, laziness, terror - all stereotypes. Otherness turns people into the masses, not individuals. Exotic, mystical, seductive. East: feminine. West: masculine. Carpets, tapestries, Haram pants. GEishas, come play with me. Apple - forbidden fruit. Airfrance. She's seductive, mysterious. "Come play me, be a lord over all. Submissive, she'd be dominated. Stereotypical notions ithat she's sexual. Makeup color names. People want diversity in food, but not the people.

Exoticism speaks to status. 1) can appropriate it and leave it - privilege of whiteness - you can dabble and leave. 2) You can signal your social class. Lots of people went to India to find themselves.

[The Fashion Oriental] - rich colours, silks, gold jewelry, sun umbrella, all get mashed together and lose their specificity.

The conspcious consumption - Does she have high or low status of wealth? High. Floresteen Bevelein - Conspicious consumption - wasted consumption. It was excessive. Consumption wasnt for practical reasons, it wasn't necessary. It was consumption beyond what you eneded for wellbeing. You had increased incomes in the period along with increased leisure time and marketing was good. People began to consume in ways that were obvious, noticeable, visible in order to signal a social distinction. Class status was at a particular level. What you can consume vs. inheritance. Reflection on your status with cash and finance. Signal your identity and class status through various consumer goods. It has a purpose - to send signs around distinction. Cars - Tesla - can you afford a X. Tech devices. Jewelry, accessories, clothing. Watches. Coffee. Shoes. tV. Bags. Buy into trends. Huge collections

This is all a reflection of taste. When we talk about taste, we talk about social class. Do you have good taste? Everything is permissible as long as it's done in good taste. Always about class. Burgeiroir - Huge study of the french middle class - are we all snobs? The idea that your taste is good taste and that everyone else's taste is bad taste is part o a class system. Book. Distinction. Howe we build distinctions between ourselves and between classes. The condition of being set apart as different and special. In popu culture, achieve distinction through your purchases. You can show valeu and good taste through good purchases. You understand value. Because evrythnig thinks their taste is good, that theycan judge. Doesn't follow that the working class appreciate middle class taste. Working class: keep your culture. Even working class are snobs - they appreciated own culture and didnt need middle classes.

Lecture 10: Feb 8, 2018

Test Review Tuesday 2:30-3:30. SJ1 3015. Thursday 12-1. SJ1 3014.

[Western Eyes] - Ann Shin.

Mother - support. Sharon's mom - didn't matter before, but modern parents dress their kids. Not just about personal value. Racism that Sharon faces. Rising rates of cosmetic surgery in adolescence. Surgery - braces. Acceptance for braces, but not surgery. Consumerism - is not a series of individual choices. Theres a judgement of surgery and a normalization. "This is just about self improvement" Agency vs. Culture industry thesis. Geography of body.

Orientalism - adopt oriental stuff, but also degrade them.

Lecture 11: Feb 13, 2018

Butler, Foucalt, and Althusser Oh MY!

The body. Pop culture, identity of the body. Plastic in Egypt. Vaginal plastic surgery. The Perfect vagina.


Sex/Gender: confusing language. Historically, the word was always "sex". Two boxes - 1 or the other. In 1950s, psychiatrists came up with the word Gender - separate biology from the cultural. Sex refers to biology and gender refers to culture. Cultural sex roles - socialization, media - what sex means in terms of performance of it. Butler: This is garbage.

Judith Butler: Gender trouble (1990). A landmark text. Dismiss her because it's too much of a mind bend. Destabilize/take apart this dichotomy around the body. Thnk critically about the body itself. They're descriptions but are productive. They're not describing something that actually exists, they actively constitute it. The categories of gender and sexuality - the results of a performativity of gender. When you perform gender, this produces the look of gender. WE usually think: you are gender, you perform it. No, we perform gender to give the appearance of gender.

Won award for worst writer in academy.

199 Gender must also designate the very apparatus of production whereby the sexes themselves are established It's not added on after. It's the very essence of how sex gets produced. The distinction of sex and gender is false. Every time we talk about sex, we are automatically talking about gender as well. Gender is not to culture as sex is to nature. Think of a child - a child that has a full identity. Think of them without sex. Can you think of a sexless child. "What is it?" "I'm hoping for a litter of kittens." It's so foundational that you can't think beyond it. The body in that formulation can't exist without the cultural production of it. It's established as prediscursive - there's sex and society layers stuff onto it, but we assume that there's a foundation that exists (but for Butler, that's a no) - there's no separaation. You can't have something that exists as foundational. Culture is formative, productive, it's not merely descriptive.

how does gender get created.

acts, gestures, and desire produce the effect of an internal core or substance, but produce this on the surface of the body, through the play of signifying absences that suggest, but never reveal, the organizing principle of identity as a cause. Such acts, gestures, enactments, generally construed, are performative in the sense that the essence or identity that they otherwise purport to express are fabrications manufactured and sustained through corporeal signs and other discursive means. That the gendered body is performative suggests that it has no ontological status apart from the various acts which constitute its reality. This also suggests that if that reality is fabricated as an interior essence, that very interiority is an effect and function of a decidedly public and social discourse, the public regulation of fantasy through the surface politics of the obdy, the gender border control that differentiates inner from outer, and so institutes the "integrity" of the subject.

these acts, gestures, desires produce the effect of this core, an identity. You produced the appearnce of a gender through all of these performances. She diagrees with people who say: I have this interior essence, so I project my interior essence outwards. She says that this relationship doesn't exist. It's not that the outside expresses something inherent to your core, it's that the performative of gender creates that core. For Butler, gender is always performative. All of these signs of gender are also interrupted. It's not that you have a unified, stable gender identity, through performances, we have lapses and interruptions. No solid, stable core.

It's odd that you look at one part of a baby and announce that part to the world. That moment isn't a descriptor of that child's essence, it's bringing them into this world of the performance of gender.

[Judith Butler: Your Behaviour Creates Your Gender] - Produces a series of effects. WE act and speak in ways that consolidate an impression of being a man or a woman. Act like being man/woman is a fact about us. It's a phenomenon that is reproduced all the time. Nobody really is a gender from the start. Sissy boys, Tomboys - difficult to function socially. Without being teased, suffering violence, without parents itnervening - why can't you be normal. There are institutional powers and informal practices like bullying. Gender is policed. Gender is culturally formed, but also a domain of agency/freedom. It's most important to resist violence. "We're all born naked, and the rest is drag."

Drag - one of the performances that reveals how gender is constituted in everyone. We consolidate an impression of gender through thiese constant and incessive that gets policed. Toy stores (pink and blue), dress code

Stable, interior core is a fabrication of gender itself.

Under conditions of normative heterosexuality, policing gender is sometimes used as a way of securing heterosexuality. It all forms a matrix, an appearance, of a stable gender core. When you police gender, you're also policing sexuality.

Repeated performance of gender that gives a stable identity. Process maks us think there's a natural inner truth. Gender is ideological - gets naturalized an normalized. A coherent pattern - when you say "sex" and someone says "it's a boy!". People are gonna show up with baseball, trucks, etc. When they imagine his marriage: a woman. This is the pattern that gets set from the beginning. As soon as you talk about sex/gender, you get pulled into that pattern. Gender is a doing, not a being. There is no doer behind the deed. Identity is an effect/product, not a cause. Drag reveals how gender gets produced as an effect. If you did not know they were a drag artist, you would not label it as drag, it would just be male/female to you. In these acts of repititon, there are interruptions, in these interruptions we can have freedom/agency. Gender could be made to be less violent. System we have now produces violence against people who are non-conforming.

Much of Butler's work rests on Michel Foucalt.

When we speak of something: it's not merely description, it is constitutive. When we name/describe something, we are creating the thing of which we speak. History of prison, sexuality. For Foucalt, modern society is based on a certain type of power - a power that is hard to see. It is almost everywhere and seemingly seems to be nowhere. The panopticon - ideal prison - center is a cylo for warden. Mor eeffective and efficient way to ensure people are well disciplined because the prisoner can't tell where the warden's looking - have to presume at any point the warden is looking. You can have 1 warden and any number of prisoners. This works for society in general because we internalize surveillance - we self-surveil - modify and regulate our behaviou rin order to be docile. Security cameras. People taking photos/videos everywhere. Visibility is a trap. Even in architecture. Produce docile bodies - easy to govern. We internalize discipline. We submit to a normalizing judgment - not just watch, but to correct behaviour - we all anticipate and work to correct our behaviour because we know someone higher than us is analyzing and judging our behaviour. Called all of this the society of normalization. All of society gets pulled into these particular norms (esp norms around the body). Before 1850, the word normal meant perpendicular. After 1850, iti is a standard to capture most people, everyone just wants to be normal - it's something to be. Difference between ideals vs. normals - ideal is what you look up to, but normal is what you're supposed to be.

All of these places arent just surveillance, it's whre we build ppower and knowledge. Every time we have power, we're building knowledge. Every time we have knowledge, we're building power. Inseperable. In know we control, in controlling we know. Brought to study of sexuality.

Peole have idea: in victorian past, people were very uptight. No one talked about sex, it was behind closed doors. Follow period of repression with libteration - Foucalt says no. Repressive Hypothesis. Foucalt says sex is the secret we are doomed to speak about forever. Argues that the Victorians were obsessed with sex. They talked about it constantly- a veritable discursive explosion. Rather than silence, there's a constant discussion. Talking about regulating, criminalizing, making it disordered is also talking about sex. Even if negative, still speaking about it. In criminal courts, doctors, lawyers - agencies of power are constantly talking about sex. KnowledgE+power - in constantly talking about sex, expressing power. Constructing that which they are speaking as opposed to describing. Aroudn 1870, that homosexuality is invented. You have proliferation of discourses. People are talking about homosexuality. They think they're discovering it, but they're actually inventing it. The invention of homosexuality is the invention of an identity based on homosexuality. The homosexual is invented as a different species - deemed to be abnormal.

Sex becomes something that has to be administered. has to be carefully regulated and controlled. Schools - schools are divided by gender. Administrators and teachers were worried about layout of desks and dorms - sex was a problem. Private business become social/political problem. Amount of space between students - can't have touching.

4 particular areas that become critical in explosion of discourse:

All of this saying it's illegal produces the identity.

Also points out: doctors have rising amounts of power as interpretors of the body. People go to doctor when need help, and doctors use patients records to publish/create new knowledge. A new confessional - confess sins - doctors label/diagnose, use that material to come up with bigger categories. Intrsection of pwoer and knowledge.

Butler uses this formulation. We're all involved in that in the production of binaries of gender.

You can never have a body without culture. Some perform inline with the system that rewards us and some perform out of line.

Lecture 12: Feb 15, 2018

2 poles on identity theory - essentialist and social constructivism.

Not unique to Egypt. "The Perfect Vagina" documentary.

Simulacrulum - Beaurillard. The hymen has no place - a copy of a copy.

[The Perfect Vagina] Hate their vagina. Impress men. Women have become more aware of what's available - doesn't mean they know what's normal. Labiaplasty. Sex and the City - Brazilian wax. They don't look like real women.

Filmmaker sees vaginal surgery as a problem. People are trying to modify their body to match other people's expectations. Is this type of surgery a reflection of a fake identity? Doesn't have to reflect true, stable identity - dying your hair. Are you being who you're not? Person vs. Person as an image. YOu mature out of a greater understanding of a range of bodies as opposed to media broadcasting. Whether or not you see btheir bodies as a true reflection of themselves.

Question of identity grew to be a question of modernity. It was a question about a soul - dif than a question of identity. Whether you have a true identity core or does the body shape that identity more profoundly. Cultural specificity - some less of a labia, some elongate. Loss of nerve endings, complications.

Hymenoplasty - blood from natural hymen smells sweet, different. Doesn't work scientifically, yet its the essential measure of virginity. Virginity is essential. Double standard. Popping sound. Certificates. Even though doctors couldn't tell.

Purity balls in America - tween girls, public ritual - promise theyll be virgins until marriage, get purity rings from father.

Hymen becomes a copy of something that never existed - simulacaram. Choice takes away respectability.

REspectability and virginity. Public/private divide - some things so taboo we can't speak/teach it.

Whether or not you think identities are stable or constantly moving and in flux. When you look in the mirror, do you see a stable identity. Do you know who you are when you look in the mirror?

Identity and geography. Is virginity prized or something you need to lose. Language.

We assume children are heterosexual, yet we also assume children aren't sexual. They have to be asexual and heterosexual.

Lecture 13: Feb 27, 2018

Masculinities - hegemonic masculinities - RW Connell. Analysis of Fight Club.

[The first rule of fight club] don't talk about fight club. Test prompt - Fight Club. and a student wrote "I can't talk about it."

Fight Club - complex film. No one way to read/interpret Fight Club. Began as a novel. Stars Edward Norton - "The Narrator" - bored businessy guy. Started Fight Club with Brad Pitt - for the joy of it. Critics loved and hated it. One hated - the only audience someone could find for this film would be in hell. Lots of violence. Raised concerns that film would spark copycats - people would take on the mayhem clan, idea and do it. News suggests that this did happen. Initially flopped. Redeemed itself in DVD sales - became cult classic. People saw it as a defining moment of Gen-X. Inspired a terrible video game, terrible line of clothing, spoofs.

[Jane Austen's Fight Club] - spoof on Fight club. In 1810s - ridiculous. Fight club is based around motions of masculinity. Feminine world of Jane Austen.

Popularized "snowflake" - in the book: you are not special, you are not a beautiful and unique snowflake. ... We're all singing, dancing crap of the world.

Spoke to a generation - iconic from 1990s.

2 pieces: counterculture vs. subculture. Is Fight club which? 2. Hegemonic masculinities.

It sparked copycats - first out of Silicon Valley. Longest lasting - Princeton University. Toxic Masculinity rised. Textbook has fairly negative critique. Advertising in society - mass culture industry.

Soap maker - consumerism, beauty in the body. Fight Club is the reengaging sensabilities of crushed consumerism - giv emen sense of authenticity, feeling (pain). Bare knuckle boxing - vicious. Low, gritty.

Speaks to masculinity. Mental health and wellness.

Counterculture vs. Subculture - things bleed together. Both oppose what are the dominant structures in culture. Both create new forms of popular culture against dominant forms. Dominant culture ends up appropriating their culture and makes it part of dominant culture. Both are considered as minority groups. Both seen as antagonistic - upset/angry towards majority culture. Counterculture - more obviously political, engaged in politics for change. Distinction is rather arbitrary. A subsculture aims to draw attention to the limits of a majority culture, offers new cultural texts/practices as an alternative - productive of new forms of culture; draws a lot of its power from not being part of regular society - outsider status; an entire genre. Counterculture - bends a dominant culture for their own critique - uses texts from dominan culture for its own critique; fan-fiction - changing the narritive, introduce more complexity; goal: explicitly political - challenge, if not replac,e dominant.

Textbook argues: Fight Club is an alibi for an attack on the feminine. The feminine is seen as being toxic and making men feminine through the role of consumerism. There's a patriarchal logic to the film.

Patriarchy - defined by male dominance, privilege, male-centered character. Normalize the world in terms of male centeredness. The male side is normative/normal, anything beyond is abnormal or lesser than. Defines men and women as opposites. Not equal parts of a dichotomy. Men are seen as superior and the feminine women are seen as inferior, subordinate. Derogatory names that you call women - bitch, cunt, slut, whore, twat, hoe, bimbo, hag, cock tease, thot, gold digger, men: tosser, fuck boy, dick, douche, fucknuts, faggot, pussy. Almost all refers to sexuality. Worst thing you can call a woman is something to do with a woman. Worst you cna call a man, is something to do with a woman. Example of how patriarchy works. Anything associated with being a woman, is deregotary. One half is elevated (masculine), anyting else is subordinate.

Issue with patriarchy, is that there's power behind it. A system about distribution of power. For a long time, it was male and female. It doesn't really work. Some men benefit more than others under the system. Some women benefit more than others as well. Theorists have siad the current structure of patriarchy celebrates one type of masculinity - at th ecenter - Hegemonic Masculinity - the dominant social ideal of masculinity. Not just top-down, something people by into as well. Connell - masc and patria are bind together. School of thought - gender is a social construction. Connell doesn't argue like Butler - social construction, it's always moving/shifting/changing. Need to talk about masculinity in a particular point in time. For Connell, there's no essential/biological/unchanging masculinity. Not some biological truth to being a man. Masculinity is not a fixed thing, ot's always in the making. Can't speak about masculinity as if there's one type. For O'Connell, there are different types of masculinity - all relational - build and respond to each other and to feminity. A dichotomy of masc and femininity. Under that, different masc are also formed.

Some critical types: 1) hegemonic masculinity - the masculinity, the form, that is culturally exhalted; it's the man who allegedly all men are supposed to be; Money, strong body, beauty, blondeness, square jaw, James Bond, finely crafted alcohol, bold/brash, straight - heterosexuality, dominant - the guy who all of the other guys will listen to, hot girlfriend, athleticism - david beckham, bravery, 50 shades of grey, intelligence. A configuration. This is the guy who leads because he's the only one who can. Has to have resonance. Business suit, military.

Michael Kimmel - 4 rules boys are given: 1) No sissy stuff. You can do nothing that remotes a hint of feminity. 2) Be a big wheel; have wealth and power, status are the ultimate measure of a man under hegemeonic masc. 3) Be a sturdy oak - never show any emotion unless it's anger. 4) Give them hell. constant aura of Daring and aggressioj.

Hegemonic masc is the center point. But there are 2 other points that Connell:

Within framework of 3 essential ones: further marginalizations around masculinity. Marganlized mascs we cant jsut read in terms of gender, but intersectionality with things like class and race. Even within hegemonic masculinity, men might be marganlized hegemonic masculinities. Idris Elba - too urban to play James Bond.

Headline: Korean men are wearing makeup for that chalk chalk look, there's an economic reason why. Chalk chalk radiance. K-pop influence. Youthfulness and beauty. It's going to become mainstream and NA are just farther behind the trend.

Lecture 14: Mar 1, 2018

[Fight Club]

Lecture 15: Mar 6, 2018

Lecture 16: Feb 13, 2018

Test 3: cumulative. 2 full classes as review. Next Thursday - cancel class.

Short words/phrases we wanna talk about: sub/counterculture, toxic masculinity, hegemonic masculinity, mental health/deviance/suicide, emasculation, capitalism(ikea), destruction/anarchy, femininity (consumerism), mob mentality

hegemonic masculinity - exalted. Not the only masculinity, but at the surface at any historical moment to define what it is to be a guy - a correct way. How is this film a discussion around masculinity? Widespread emasculation - men have been feminized through consumption. Literal emasculation - one of the self help groups - testicular cancer - "bitch tits" - Bob - sickly state of emasculating - tourist of self help, self help and getting help -> emasculation.

Marla is a temptress - Narrator has to get away from her. In this world, men dont have friends, only single use friends. No community. Independence - hegemonic masc - like rocks, don't need community -> toxic masculinity - you don't have anyone - soul-self sufficiency.

Marla goes into caretaking role when shot - he says "I'm fine" - even in physical crisis, appearance has to be I'm fine - be a sturdy oak. Can't ever crack them. Men are less likely to see help.

A sickness - entire system of gender - everyone is imbattled - it failed everyone.

Why do I like this film so much? It's cause it has all these conflicting things and readings you can do.

Ikea - exemplar of this inauthenticity - narrator can make his home his home by purhcasing goods that exist in the millions.

Soap - Tyler says: soap is civilization. Their fat from liposuction. A system of capitalism. Satire of film. You are part of the cycle. Extracts from you something to sell back to you. Making money off of people. The whole system is based on human exploitation - this is a crass, direct example of it. Other side: sold back to rich women, consumers are seen as dupes. Not smart in consumption and will buy anything. Negative presentation of feminized consumption. Stupid rich women who will buy the fat they just sucked out.

How does this reflect toxic masculinity? Exaltation of violence, pain, suffering. "I can't cry" His way into feeling is through intense, physical violence. Toxic: violence, anger, aggression. Weren't allowed to mourn.

You can't escape the patriachal logic (textbook) - dominant or counterhegemonic reading?

People actually started fight clubs. They're critiquing fight club. Perhaps copycats are copying the beginning part of fight club and not project mayhem.

There aren't really any consequences.

Narrator is in crisis and doesn't get help. And getting help leads to ridicule. If you do it yourself, it leads to more problems. There is no help. Even Marla's attempt - treated not great. Should one reach out?

Mental health/suicide - Are they painted as suffering memebers of society or fringe members of society? Romanticizes a type of sexual behaviour. Her unwellness is exploited.

The followers - why are they following Tyler + Narrator? IS it a shared sense of unwellness or ...? Consumerism - we buy things on promise. If you buy this ____, you will feel this. but you don't feel any of this.

Dissosicative Identity Disorder. Powerful commentary on mental illness - you don't realize you're in the midst of someone's crisis until it's revealed to you. You don't realize that you're in a crisis. Hard to explain to people what that's like. How do you do that for yourself? It's easy to slip down that road.

Mental illness - it affects a lot of people whether there's a formal diagnosis or not. A lot of people struggle. Reach out for them rather for the moment when it is revealed to us. Feel free to reach out.

Lecture 17: Mar 15, 2018

Themes in relation to fight club. Talk about globalization and the globalized hegemonic masculinity.

Announcements: "Thanks to jacqueline. Is jacqueline here?" Michael Kimmell - What does it mean to be a good man and a real man? In terms of mental health, boys/men are behind. Kevin Love - idea of masculinity is ordinary it's everywhere. Glboalization - not just an isssue in one specific location. Everywehre issue. Also an issue that gets localized and modified at particular sights.

Globalized hegemonic masculinities

Globalized hegemonic masculinities - get taken up and modified in various different places. One of the criticil issues like space (consturctin of space) is that consturctions of space are social constructions. Even the basic divides around nature vs culture, whenever we talk about nature, culture is reflected in itas well. Public vs. private - foundational dichotomy on how we structure ideas about space and gender. The distinction is foundational.

One of the critical pieces of modern idiology of how you live is the gendering of space. This idea - ppublic vs private sphere - is a social construction born out of Britain during the early years of industrialization (late1700, early 1800s). Timing is important - this ideology is part of what gets spread as they spread across the globe for an empire. Globalization is also about culture and the spread of ideology. Ideology gets spread - how you shpe cosciety and gender roles through the british empire. British empire - any part was coloured in a shade of pink. The pink going over the map. How far tentacles of empire spread. A lot of map was pink - not just politica/economicchanges, but also cultural ones. This foundational dichotomy of dif spheres marks public and private divide. The public sphere: marked by work. Private sphere: home/domestic realm. These were gendered. Public: labour, work, male and masculine - defined by things that men were defined by, breadwinners, support entire family, dangerous. Private: feiminity, safe. We know this isn't true, but this is how the dichotomy works. The dichtomy is not descriptive, but productive. By the 1840s and 1850s, in Britain this ttransition had taken place where you had the separation of work and home (before they didnt have) and that it was gendered. If transition didn't take place, it was a personal abberation. Structured ideas about space, modern society, modern families. Morally corruptable/pure, comeptition/peaceful, violence/nonviolent.

Ideas about how men and women are supposed to act out of this dichotomy. Women achieve satisfactiont hrough selflessness and scarficie around the home. Men get vlaue from work. Women - selfless mother figure who cares in the home. Men - formed around work. The idea: people at the time didn't see this as a social construction - people thought it was written in nature, this was the natural way the world was supposed to function. Grows out of shifiting economy around industrialization


Globalization - with industrialization, work moves outside of the home (craft industries), and into mass production outside of the home. In this system, you get th emodern class system. Before you had feudalism. Under industrialization, you need a flow of capital. You have a new class of men emerging - a business class of men. Engaged in commerce, banking, stock market. This group of guys doesn't meet traditional standards of aristocratic class - not inheriting stuff, they have to work. They're also not the people working in the factories. They're in the middle space - distinguish from elite and the "great unwashed" - poor people. How do you distinguish yourself as middle class?

You can have 1 breadwinner in the household (man) and all th edependants. You signal class status by showing that you can have all dependants in household and one person supporting them all. Sign: leisured wife - they had to do stuff at the home - managers - but htey're not physically working in th ehome in the same way and see as being leisured. This ideology gets spread around the world.

When scholars talk about globalization, those traiditional divies around location and time (big distance) shrinks - the world got smaller. New technology, mass media (same image anywhere in the world at the same time). Globalization is a process that includes mass media, economy, tenolgoghical developments that made common relationship. People at distances experiencing similar things at the same time.

Globalization is often imiplicitly Americanization. A spread of western ideals globally. Hollywood films, English, american currency as standard currency, standard of beauty, McDonald's, DisneyWorld, The Gap. It homogenizes and displaces local cultures and indigenous cultures. What we get is a monoculture.

Globalization is sometimes put into discussion with cultural imperialism. Refers to the ideological side of globalization. A spread of culture and cultural ideas a the expense of local/dingeoegous cultures. They ware contested. Perhaps it remains too simplistic in regards to how people consume. Culture isn't neutral in the way it's spread, bu ttied into politics.

Politicla and economic expansion of European states across the world. Colonial empires. About extracting goods, but also about taking over a location. Emperialism - was also gendered. First phase of colonialization -attempts to conequest certain places - gendered segregated forces - mens armies. Massive disruptions of local customs. 2nd phase, the building up of colonial societies. Families would come over and settle into a local place and displacing their shit, while buuilding their own society with their own ideals. In BC, when theere was a push to settle and displace. Lots of men going to work there. Lots of ugys. They started to participate in local idnigenous cultures, and w indingenous people. They won't have 2nd stage if there's too much intermixing/mingling. They sent over single women from Britain - women come over, men run up and grab women and try to marry them. Lots of marriaes happen. Displaced relationships with indigngeous women. Racial hierarchy.

People have argued that sice post war period (1935), we have gotten to a period of decolonilization. Retreat of empire. Other people have argued that this is when we see the rise of globalization. Replace one colonial order with neocolinization. A harder to see colonization.

This is an image that is very much authored for the center - imperial center - reads to us as alarmingly racist. Europe Supported by Africa and America. European - the center of empire. Europe is looking demure - down, not looking at viewer - pedestol. Other women - bondage. Europe doesn't have bondage - she is independent. European - covered by her hair, much more modest. The other women are not. European - jewlery symbolizing class. These are the ideas that helped shaped that global order. Popular image

These ideas were carried into colonial societies. You needed to enforce that public/private divide. Characeteristic: restructuring of local economies of local families so it was male breadwinner and female domestic worker in the house. That was seen as essential. For europeans who did this, it was seeen as progress. Along with this imposition, was imposition of heterosexuality as the basis of this system.

Didn't create the quality amongst men because there were still racial hierarchies - produced speicifed hierarchies amongst men. Certain men could almost meet hegemonic masc, and others as weak/ifemininte. Through things like mass media. This type of stuff doen't stop. Michael Kimmell aruges at 1980 onwards, global hegemonic masculinity - you can dientify this global HM in the airport - that guy in the airport - he sits in the first class waiting rooms, elegant business hotels, designer suit, speaking engliish, continental cuisine, laptop plugged, watches cnn international, cosmpopolitan, liberal taste, conservative government. No matter where they're from, talks and acts as they do. Western - speaks english, the business guy, liberal in personal life but conservative in politics, birth of the black business suit (hallmark of men's fashion - dark blue/black, light coloured shirt, not a lot of variation), he gets the plug (for his laptop), high tech. Cosmopolitan views at an american angle. Others described this as a consumption-based masculinity (new) and a branded masculinity (has made men more self-conscious, about their bodies. Killing Us Softly - documentary about how advertising manipulates women that their bodies are not good enough (dieting commercials, perfume commercials), tell them to seek out models of physical beauty. Chris - blonde hair, blue eyes, tall dark and handsome, muscular, the V - big shoulders, small waist, hairless, Magnum PI(chest hair, sensuality), oily chest, right level of beard)

Taken all of the anxities of women and injected into masculinity. Enormous reach through mass media. Magazines. Globalized masc has a general parameters - slightly tailored to local locations. Variation on a theme. Beauty pageant - variations on a theme - different enough to pick out differences without representing a full range of body sizes. There are 2 types of global masc that have appeare din canada:

Men's lifestyle magazines - how similar global oens are to US and UK maagazines - same format, tailored to dif locations. China - growth of sale/consumption of men's personal care products. Not a wholesale americanizations, but things get tweaked and tailored to location. TRaditional chinese masculinity: 2 components:

Take it and localized to location to make sense. Allows for it to speak to traditional qualities. Broad formulation can be tweaked to locations. flexibility, mallibility.

Another trend, focus of the male gaze onto other men. Not in a sexual way, but in a way that has produced mens bodies as consumption for other men. Not sexual pleasure. Men have become sex objects for other men under branded masculinity. underwear commercials - head doesn't matter - disembodiment - focus on certain elements of the body - pleasurable viewership - want to embody that guy. Tot ake on that gaze, it requires you see yourself from outside in.

Lecture 18: Mar 20, 2018

[Catfishing - Indictment the crimes of shelley]. Chartier Chris Birdman Anderson.

Stigma around crimes -> antisocial behaviour, not have support. She's pretty isolated. And moving of her community to worse land.

Catfishing - identities are online. We curate very particular identities of ourselves online. A really false world. Does it ever accurately present one's true self. Flags in real life, prevous communication doesn't align, but still spend weekend together.

Lecture 19: Mar X, 2018

Same structure as test 1 and 2 - cumulative. Specific direction on Thursday.


Ideology - Used to dismiss something - "Oh, that's ideological." Ex: heteronormativity - how it functions as ideology. It gets built through history and natrualizes through histroy. Ideas and perspectives as natural, but it's actually through ihstory how it builds. To study ideology - denaturalize it, make it something seen as human built. No one is born knowing their history. We're future-oriented. Everything that is heterosexual is normal nad natural - this is ideology, historically drivne, socially/culturally composed, doesn't mean it's not ocntested. There can be competing ideologies, but there's often a reigning ideology that becomes a central one and other ideolpogies supporting it. hey float to the top - becomes the most common, but doesn't mean it's universal or all encompassing.

Background ideas that we possess about the way in which the world is supposed to function and how we're supposed to function within it. Deep rooted ideas that form a worldview. The root word of ideology is idea. We are talking about ideas, but not on some namby pamby philsopsihcal level, ideas have very real consequences in our lives. Shorthand to describe: a material existence - real existence. bathrooms - opposite sex - "Why do people have to change, this is the way things have always been?" Not ture, it's been that way since 19th century. This idea of there being opposite sexes is an idea that's born in 18th century - takes root in peoples lives. You have this level ideas but it comes down into the most basic elements of our lives - which bathroom you use. Broad idea that functions as a material reality onto someone's livfe.

How it broadens more widely into an entire system, into a worldview. Ideology is a system of representations. Those bathroom signs are part of the system of ideology/representations. By representations, images and myths, concepts, ideas. This ideology has an existence. Goldstein argues it is endowed within an existence. IT is very real, ahs a historical role within a given society. Has that historical role. Develop in a certain place, get naturalized in time. System of time helps naturalizing the ideas.

Ideology functions as a vehicle of the values, of the status quo. Helps push and maintain a status quo.

Philosophical origins - look at Karl Marx + Friedrich Ingles. Marx and Inglesism. This concept of ideology is about the production of ideas. Also of consciousness. How people are consicous to the world around you. Ideology is very broad: politics, politcal system, laws, morality, religion. Ideology functions as a superstructure of a civilization. It makes up things like conventions - how do you ddo things and ideas about culture. Conventions and culture. Their main obssession was capitalism. Ideology is always related to class. PArt of that structure is a class based structure. For Marx and Engels, the ruling ideology (broadlya ccpeted and structued) is always the ideology of the ruling class. IDeology is always a class-based system. Whoever controls the mode of production controls the ruling ideology. A middle class ideology - the owners. The bankers, financiers, bussinessmen. Controlled the ideology. Marx and Ingles wanted to inspire a revolution. But all of these workers are buying into these system - they're upholding and supporting it --> False consciousness - you believe in a worldview that serves others. IDeology is about social control. "Religion is the opium of the people." PRotestant Evangelical religion - if you work really hard in this life, your reward wil come in heaven. They argued that it was druggigng them to work. It doesn't matter if im working for no money because what matters is that I'll be rewarded in heaven. The other part of class system: that it was natural. It wasn't born out of an economic system, but was written in nature and divine (god-given). God wanted a certain number of people to be very poor, you couldnt go beyond your station in life. Example of false consciousness? Separation of learning and education - ideology that if you go to unviersity than you are smart - what you have mmore opportunity to learn. "I didnt' say mom, you have false consciousness" Buy into a certain advertising disocurse - if you buy this product, you will be seen as successful and smart and sexy. Serving worldview of others to buy product. M+E: The origins of ideology

M+E ideas were advised by Antonio Gramsci - 2 critical ideas: 1) Common Sense - Ideology often functions as common sense. "Well that's just common sense" - function of ideology. You're not in this worldivew and you shoudl know. That which is obsviously true, common to everyone, or normative. Commons ense is formed through a complicated process. Born out of a big body of beliefs that are sometimes contradictory. Stuart Hall gives us definition of Gramscis common sense: it combines history with principles of science, prejudics of the past, and orientations of the future philosophy. CS is this contradictory mix of contemprary silence, history, past, present, future. Children are good at poking holes in ideology - they ask Why? Kids are great cause they don't get it. We teach them ideology instead of "let's run with it" Critical of M+E about ruling class/ideology. For others, ideology and class don't neatly overlap. There isn't a dominant ruling class and subordinate ideology. Gramsci coins the term Hegemony ; 2) Hegemony; How is it that ordinary people come to be persuaded of a specific view of things, that isn't of their best interest. You generally believe in it. Not false consciousenss. Crucial question is not whether or not an ideology is true or false, but that process of how people come to believe it. For him, not just about power. Hegemony is achieved through a combination of coercion and consent. Not forced but close to forced. They buy into it. The ruling class achieves domination. Not through one group alone but thhrough both. Subjects willingly consent to being ruled.

Heteronmromatviiititiy - it's just common sense. Something that is produced through any number of vehicles like the honeymoon. Crucial for building heteronormativity.

Another big piece: The culture industry thesis. By Adorno and Horkheimer. Appered in 1947. This stuff has got legs. Critical part about culture in history. Referred as the Frankfurt shcoolol - neo marxist philosophers. Indebted to ideas of Marx - revising ideas. Also referred to school of critical theory. Standardization. You have to buy into culture - you can't escape it. The systme is: you have to keep buying in. Culture is really closely conencted to capitalist prodtion. Goal is to sell you stuff to make money. It's not enough to have a sweater that fits you, you need to have 20 sweaters in the coolest style. Has to change so that it's familiar, but different enough to spark consumption. It cannot be so different that it throws you off. Pseudoindiidvidualization - false identity - you produce your own individual identity with these mass made products - false indidivdualization - using all of these products form mass culture machine to roduce waht you think is an indidivudal identity. Clothing I have today i think shows my identity, but there are a lot of people wearing it today. A bit of false consciousness. Were speaking agaisnt the idea that culture was the product of geniuses (artistic geniuses, artisans). No, culture itself is a commodity- somehting that is bought and sold. Through mass production. All of the products of culture reflect the logic of mass production - profit. Have to be easily reproducible. HAve to reflect a certain standardization. Clothing - before the 20th century, clothes were really expensive caus eyou had to go to a tialor to get clothes that fit your own body. Design clothe sot fit your body. Expensive. It's individual. What happens through mass production is that instead of having clothes designed to fit bodies, we now have clothe smade that we fit our bodies into. We'll diet. In reality, what's beign sold to us is culture. Reality TV - what are you being sold? not much. Same script. The Bachelor. Nothing tangible there. Kardashians - brilliant cause they figured out the system. Culture production is marked by superficial novelty - what changes is really superficial. It has to be enough of a coding of new to conceal the repetition. The newest bachelor wil have some sort of twist. Perhaps you'll buy a new lipstick because now it has shimmer, matte. Different enough to stimulate consumption. Can't be challenging. Argued that mass culture has a preference for the formulaec - soap operas, romantic comedies, pop music acts - boybands, girl bands. this programs people what they call the audience to assume that th eonly values are the values of capitalism. The best values: accumulation of wealth, spending is a sign of status, financial status indicates human value. Accoridng to them, it contributes to the decline of folk culture and high culture. What the mass culture machine does it it goes into folkhigh culture, strips them of their uniqueness nd makes stuff out of it.
Criticisms of this thesis: Really all-encompassin - doesn't leave a lot of room for human agency; that nothing is new; it's really mysoginistic - woman hating - because women are primary consumersm - makes owmen seem like idiots, mahcines consuming things. Ism't there something to that if buying something makes you happy? I know the system, but it makes me happy; very elitist - snobbery. Look at what the masses are doing, buying stuff;

How does the ideas of ideology come out of Fight Club? Liposuctin soap. The entire film is a criticism based on culture industry thesis. All of this stuff is what happens to narrators character in the beginning. He must throw it all off to come to terms with a better reality.

Orientalism - By Edward Said. Reflects a particular construction of the Orient/East by the WEst. It's a cultural fabrication. It is only loosely tied to geopraphy. a morphus of ggeorgrpahical term. IT's not a place, it's an idea. An imagination, invention by the WEst of the East so the WEst can feel superior of itself. All those colonial powers cna say they're rational, etc. Projec ton East that it's lazy, sensuous, and feminine. It's a production, not reality. Pepole still use Orient as if it describes a place. But they dont use Occident term. Book was Orientalism. Looked at how the WEst was defined superior and anythingn beynd the west was described s inferior. The east was defined as Other. Said pointed out that these were eessentialist representations - biological essence. SHowed how this imagination happened across a series of texts - poltical docs, novels, iamges, advertisements, maps. All of this played into devleopments. It was about widespread process. A process that has historical roots. A series of complex representations of fabrication. East is associated with sensuality and authenticity. People who were captured under the stereotype of orientalism were determined by racial considerations. The Whiteness of the rest was erased. As if white was an invisible identity against other racial constructions. Theoriezed in late 1970s. Marking things as seductive and sexual. Any ad with a white person in a kimono. Rich jewle tones, sensous silky fabrics. Mysticiism. Cultural approrpaiteion.

Conspicuous consumption - wasted money - you build status. This building of class status. Pointed out by Veblen. End of 19th century that gives rise to this - people are getting more liesure time and money. The modes of production are changing, more regulation, more leisure time, more money. Want to distinguish themselves. DISTINCTION. Distinguish themselves from other people - do this through your pruchases. That is noticeable and obvious. It has to be beyond what's needed to serve you as a human being. This isn't illigitemate - not useless, purposeless. intead of practical purpose, it erves a social purpose to signal class differences. Differences like taste. How do you know you have good taste. We're all snobs. We assume we all have good taste. The point is: there's no natural thing to good taste. The taste is ideological. Taste is a product of a class system. Associated with class. Your conspicious purchases reveal your good taste and distinguish you from other people. The thing for Bourdieu - distinction and taste - important that everyone thinks their taste is good taste - speaks back to a rigid class sytem - middle and upper class folks are condescending - we just need to teach these folks what good taste is. Somehow you can lift them out of their taste. Pretentious. Closely connected to Veblen, but Veblen predates Bordieu.

Lecture 20: Mar 29, 2018

letter grade A-F. + or - C - satisfactory, B good. A-: 80-84. A: 85-89. A+: 90+. C-: 60-64. C: 65-66. c+ 67-69. Short justification.

Cumulative. Same structure. Not a lot of new material we covered since test 2. Globlaization and Global hegemonic masculinities. From the text,

From the text: the early material - definitions of popular culture, definitions of identity, globalization piece, material based on stuart hall on encoding and decoding test - how do you read a text (performance, etc broad) - system for how people can read text (tv, film) - hegemonic reading wher eyou read in line or counterhegemonic - you understand what the producers are trying to teal, bu tyou read against the grain of it, not that you just dont get it. Misreadings happen too but that's not what that is.;

From lectures: stuff from last class; judith butler; hegemonic masculinity; globla hegemonic masculinities; postmodernity

Postmodernity - a time period. After the second world war. A period of modernity, then post modernity. Accoridng to Leotard, post modernity as being defined as a shift in capitalism that under modernity, you have mass production of goods. In the shift towards post modernity, the argument is that capitalism stops producing useful goods and instead overproduces images. Guineess beer - guiness was good for you, a meal replacement. It was useful, this is why you should purchase it. Instead under PM, you buy into the image of guiness that will signal your higher taste. Shfits in capitalism. What we do today: we live in a world that is saturated in images. Thoeriests say that we are constantly held at the levle of representation - there's nothing beyond representation. Big debates about the nature of truth. There's no capital T truth anymore. No big meaningful trurths. Can't get to it because it's always held at the superficial. Architecture - term coined in architecture. embraces the breakign down the fundamental dichotmies/bianries. Modernist architecture - sleek, tall skyscraper vs. postmodernist architecture - cant tell whats inside or outside, house or nature, man or nature. It's breaking down dichotomies and reading them critically as ooposed to seeing them as something in nature, but as systems that make meaning.

In post war period, there's a gender imbalance - who's the watcher who is the watched - who is the object/subject. Laura Mulvey - Male Gaze. A way of looking that reduces what is being looked at to an object. Just because you're male, doesn't mean you have the male gaze. Just cause female, doesn't mean you have to have a female gaze. Fight CLub - you read the film through a masculine lens (hegemonic). Marla is an object in the film - often times when the people watch the film, they see her as an object. You identify with the male narrator, ven though tyou're thinking this guy is a mess. You take on the male gaze since it's the hegemonic reading. Critical part comes from John Berger: how now, art is removed from very specific locations. We're caught up in the world of representations. When you see the Mona Lisa, it's the copy. Even when you see the origiinal, the copy has the power since you saw it on the itnernet/screen first. These images float around freely. Berger noted that there's a gender imbalance in the production of images. Men are the ones who look at women and women become objects to look at. In this formulation, even women watch themselves being looked at -this is how they see themselves. Women must constantly watch themselves. Women are never without the image of themselves. They're constantly worried if they have a hole in their nylons, how does my makeup/hair look. Women are never free from the image that has to accompany them.

Gender postmodernity brings us into critical theory by Judith Butler - Gender is performative, not in nature. It's a social construction. Critical piece: the dichotomy of sex and gender, where sex = nature and gender = culture, she takes apart. She says that's a myth. Gender has to be constantly performed - it's doing, not being. IT produces the appearance of gender. Historically, if you use "Sex", you're using biological differences, sex was nature. In 1950s started using gender in a way to talk about culture and culture's role in producing roles. There was sex that was biolgoical, then gender which was culture. J Butler says no, that doesn't work. Gender is actually critically involved in producing a natural sex or a sex nature. Gender is actually part of the apparatus that gives us the appearance of sex. Thinking outside the boxing. Gender is not to culture and sex is not to nature. All of these things, acts gestures and sexual desires, are performative in that they produce that sex identity. Rather than your gender reflecting who you think you are on the inside, no. The performance produces the feeling of that essence. For Butler, gender has to be acted on repeatedly. The repetition has to be constant because there's no fixed stable identity there - it's performative. The good thing here: there's opportunities for disruption, because it has to constantly performed - there can be ruptures - ways of revealing that this system isn't nature. Butler says that gender also produces the categories of heterosexuality and homosexuality. it's this gender-sex-sexuality matrix that gives us those categories, rather than those categories existing in nature. Critical part: far into the realm of social constructionism.

Subculture vs. counterculture - They're difficult to parrse out because they somewhat overlap. Both draw attention to the limits to a majority culture/practice. Subculture offers a new form of culture as an alternative. Subcultures can be really prductive in that sense. They draw form the power of not being part of the majority. Counterculture is different because it takes the majority practice and bends it, often in critiuqe of it. It's not necess productive, but it's a critique that uses it. It's often explicityly political - they want to fashion change, replace dominant social and political beliefs. Pop culture stereotype of cc - new social movements by the hippies. Chagne society in a massive way.

Hegemonic masculinities - Patriarchy - male dominance, male-centered, rule of the father. What it does is that it dfines men and women as opposites. And privilege for one side. Masculinity is rppirivlieged, feminitity is subordinate. Insults are around women's sexuality. Worst thing you can call a woman/man is being a woman. Positiv eside: compliments - "she's really got balls", "they manned up". Elevated vs. subordinated. A pwoer behind this. The whoel s ystem of patriarchy values dominance, control, power. These are criticla masculine values. Theere are many masculinities - the most ingrained in patriarchy is hegemonic maasculinity.

This is the short form of ideal masculinity. Coonnell sees it as socially constructive. Hegemonic Masculinity - Ideal form that everyone is supposed to live up to. If you don't, you have a lesser form of masculinity.

Kimmell - 4 rule sfo rhegemonic masuclinity. gonna be the guy who does stuff. Hegemonic masc is heterosexual masc. Heterosex is woven into hegemonic masc. This masculinity isn't universal - it's not every male who even desires to be this masculinity. Other types of masculinities that are subordinate masculinities: gay masculinity. Men can also be opppressed in partirarchy. Politicla and cultural abuse - denying marriage cert, wedding cake, imprisonment under sodomy, legal violence, street violence, economic discrimination, personal boycotts. Gay masc is one of a subordinate. There's a rich vocab of abuse: fag (calling out a guy based ont heir sexuality, diminsihing it, making it seem liek you dont wanna be associated with it), queer (want to take back that word), that's so gay (that's so lame - to designate something that is ttragic, lesser), no homo, feminized. Other part: complicit masculinity - least work done on this. Hardest to grasp. Hardest to parse out. A complicit masculinity is a masc that benefits from a hegemonic masc, but the person tries to distance themselves from it. Rather than being outwardly aggressive or in pursuit of things like domination or authority, I want to be equal that still benefits. Distance but till want to repa all benefits and rewards from hegemonic masc. Not aggressive, but I don't want ot be feminine. Not correcting. Masculinities marked by class and race. Conneell points oiut: hegemonic masc also benefits from white supremacy. Black masc, even if they seem to match hegemonic masc, will always be marginalized in realtion to white masc. Privileging white, middle class, heterosexual masculinity. Marginalized masc - based on race, class. could have more access to power over subordiante masc, but can never achieve the saem pwoer as white masc.

Global Hegemonic Masculinity - Kimmell has a description of a guy who embodies global hegemonic masc. Guy rides business class, phone laptop, designer business suit, english speaking, eats continental cuisine, cosmopolitan. Context of a global business world where things are increasignly homogenized. This is the guy. Mission of global hegemonic masc. Consumption-based, branded masculinity. A masc defined by physical appearance. fashion sense, physical fitness. Men's personal care products rise.

Breakdown: Some from each of the 3 portions. A lot more from part 1, 2. Especially part 2. Fight club and all of the theory. Review what did this week.

Lecture 21: Mar X, 2018