Intro to Anthropology

ANTH 100 - Spring 2017 - University of Waterloo

Nic Hayes

PAS 2020. nhayes@uwaterloo.ca. MW 1:00-2:00

3rd Edition American or 1st Canadian Edition.

M/C exams. May 23. June 12. 50 mins per midterm. 2 hours for final.

Lecture 1: May 1, 2017

What is Anthropology?

Anthropology is the integrated study of human nature, human society and the human past. The study of humanty in all times and all places. Answer the question: what it means to be human. Taking things that are unfamiliar, and making them familiar. Taking things that are familiar, and making things unfamiliar. Very broad discipline. Social science.

Biology, Philosophy, Sociology, Political Science, History, Psychology, etc. all study human nature.

Demonstrate the separation between biological evolution and cultural evolution. People used to think they were the same thing. Black people are not as smart as white people. Women not as smart as men. Proven to be not true.

Culture

A set of learned behaviours that you learn from society. Some learned excplicitly, some learned implicitly. We use culture to adapt to our world and to transform it. The thing that has had the greatest impact on us as organisms and everything else. Very little the human culture doesn't touch. Unique to humans. No other species have anything like it. We're more dependant on learned behaviour. We are born with no instincts to survive. Giraffe is born, stands up. Human is born, useless. We have a long period of learning before we become adults. So many things to learn that human growth is suppressed. We should be reaching physical maturity around 8 or 9. Childhood is longer among humans because of culture. Humans are bio-cultural organisms - both biology and culture. Biology is what makes us capable of culture. Survival as biological organisms has come to depend on culture. We can no longer survive in the wild. Biology has been affected by culture.

Cross-Disciplinary

**Diagram**

The Four Field Approach.

Biological Anthropology

Human beings as living organisms. Started in the 19th century in the study of human physical variation. Used to measure physical differences in people - Physical anthropologists - goal was to classify people with races. Ended up proving that race as a scientific category doesn't exist, it's a cultural thing. They are labels invented by people in power.

Now more interested in Primatology, Paleoanthropology - fossilized homanide remains, Human skeletal biology - bones, skeletal remains, Molecular anthropology - cells, DNA from fossilized neanderthal.

What makes humans similar and different from one another and other species.

Archaeology

Archaeology - Specializes in the study of past human cultures. Data obtained from material remains and not living. Mmay work closely with historians and other speciailists with the analysis.

Linguistic Anthropology - We are language users. Other species don't have languages, only have communication systems. Study the ways that language correlates with gender, race, ethnicity, class, etc. Linguistic is intertwined with Cultural.

Cultural Anthropology

Cultural Anthropology (Social/Ethnology/Socio-cultural) - Study culture - learned behaviours. Closest to sociology. Interested in all members of society. Social organization, gender, religion, marriage, kingship, etc. Distinct by their methods - data is collected in an extended period of field work - participant observation - attempt to live in the culture for a year. Speak to Informants to compile data. Ethnography - description of a way of life by the people. ##Ethnology - comparison of two or more groups of poeple.

Lecture 2: May 3, 2017

Interdisciplinary

Applied Anthropology

You can do it from any division or combine them. Subfield where the anthropologist uses insights from any combination of subfields to arrive at a solution to everyday problems. There were no razors for women. Applied anthropologists helped Gilette create the first women's razor.

Medical Anthropology

Studying human health. Biological and cultural anthropology. Critical medical anthropology - take local health issues and link to larger social, economic processes. Colonialism - disease just doesn't occur because of pathogens - could be due to inequality, lack of access to healthcare, lack of access to clean water. Politiciszing issues of health and illness.

Uses of Anthropology

Cope with cultural differences. Question the rightness of our own ways of doing something - not starting from the assumption that the way we do tings is right.

Diispell bigoted stereotypes.

Chapter 3

Evolutionary Theory

Living species can change over time to give rise to new species. Common ancestry of living organisms. Not just a theory.

What did people think before Darwin?

First records - Ancient Greek. People thought the world was ageless - it always existed and it is always going to exist. Others thought that the world was created recently and will end very soon. ##Essentialism## (Plato) - everything in the world is a copy of an ideal world. Every imperfect example in our world had an essence of the perfect thing in the ideal world. All things in the world with the same essence belonged to the same "natural kind."

Aristotle - believed all of the natural kinds could be organised on a continuum: simple to complex.

Judeo-Christian - there must be a greater being. There are no gaps. Made it the ##Great Chain of Being##. They made it a hierarchy - only God is perfect. Humans have souls and material bodies - in the middle. There was no other way to talk about it.

Challenged. Georges Cuvier - anatomist - first excavations. Discovered only 4 major categories of living things. He couldn't find anything else like the fossil species he found. Found that some species weren't always there. Periods of extinction and speciations - revolutions (translated to catastrophe) -> ##Catastrophism##. Probably large-scale natural disasters. Idea that a species would disappear was radical - because there was only one creation to Essentialists. If there was no connection between the 4, then what is the chain?

Idea of intelligent design - a benevolent creator created these species. ##Uniformitarians##. New species appear, but they're also God's creations. The world changes, but it's by design. They disagreed that extinctions happen. They didn't think that God would allow extinction. Charles Lyell - Use understanding how erosion works to understand what the earth looked like in the past. Interested in how old the earth is.

Catastrophist - accept that harmony was occassionly badly disrupted. Sometimes extinctions need to happen. Uniformitarian - events were unfolding according to God's laws.

##Transformational Evolution## Lamarck tried to figure out what could account for all of these theories. He was totally wrong. Wanted to believe the world was harmonious, but couldn't explain extinction - how could perfect creatures become extinct? People said it was because of a flood. But water creatures were also fossilized. Some people thought some were hunted by forebearers. Other people thought they moved somewhere else and we never found them yet - but this was becoming unlikely. He thought maybe the fossil animals are the forebearers. There were changes in the environment, they adapted, passed to descendants, they changed. It's a changing world - Transformational Evolution. Each species transforms into another. He proposed two laws: 1. Organs are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse - use it or lose it. 2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics. Ex: Giraffes. Plant food on the ground was becoming scarce. Food was only in trees. They kept stretching necks. If you dye your hair green, you can't pass that on. This doesn't work. But it paved the way for Darwin.

Natural Selection. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace. Wallace was an amateur naturalist. Theorized that a given species over time could give rise to species. Over how much time? Archbishop Usher - 9am on Oct 23 4004 BC. Lyell disagreed because of erosion studies - hundreds of thousands - wrong but right idea. Actually 4.5 billion years old. Darwin -

Lecture 3: May 5, 2017

##Natural Selection## - best explanation that we have to account for biological variation. Every generation naturally has variation. The variants that are better adapted to the nevironment survive longer. This causes change in a species over time as qualities are preferentially passed on. To this view, ther is no essence to species. There is no "humanness," it's just all variation that is all-changing all the time. Have to think about it at a population-level, not individual-level. Lamarck - individual giraffes. Darwin - all giraffes - some giraffes naturally have longer necks - will survive longer with more offspring. Thomas Malvis had this idea that population increases geometrically but resources only increase arithmetically. Early on, not enough resources. Competition for resources so some variants get them and others don't. Those that don't survive, don't breed. ##Survival of the fittest##.

Aptation - any kind of feature than an organism has, no matter where they got it from. Adaptation - any useful feature that has been shaped by natural selection. Exaptation - a feature that was originally shaped by natural selection and then it's useful for another thing. Wings on insects were not originally shaped for flying. They were for cooling down. When they became big enough, they became useful for fluttering then flying.

##Biological fitness## - how many offspring do you have.

Main problem with Darwin's theory: no one could explain how heredity worked. People knew traits were passed on, but they don't know how.

Heredity

##Pangenisis## - everybody is made up of particles. The particles from each parent merges and gives to child. If child gets more hair particles from father, then hair will be more like father's.

Gregor Mendel - plant breeding experiments with peas. He noticed that pea plants - red flowers + white flowers =/= pink flowers. 2nd generation- 3:1. There is no blending. There's only one particle and every parent just passes just one. ##Co-dominant## trait - equally expressed trait. The particles were ocurring in pairs. Each individual gets one from each parent - ##Principle of Segregation##. When the embryo is formed, the pairs of particles are independently sorted - they come together at random in the offspring. But no one paid attention to it for 35 years.

New science: ##Genetics##. ##Homozygous## - the same trait from each parent. Blue eyes are recessive. Nothing else to express. Different particles - ##Heterozygous##. ##Genes## - particles.

Often more than two variants to a particular gene. ##Allele## - all the diferent possible variants of a trait. Eye color: blue, brown, green, etc. All chromosomes came in pairs.

Cells have to different kinds of celll stuff - ##mitosis## - when cells make copies of themselves. ##meiosis## - when dividing, chromosomes obey Mendelian principles. The chromosomes are segregated and independently sorted. A gene has a position in a chromosome. Some traits only appeared if other traits were present - linked traits, passed on together. Part of a chromosome can break off and attach to another - crossing over.

They used to think that genes perfectly mapped to traits. Happens in simple cases. ##Polygenetic## traits - governed by many genes. Continuum. Skin colour.##Pleiotropy## - just one gene that affects many traits. Sickle-cell Anemia - Genetic condition. Affects red blood cells. Increases resistance to Malaria and decreases amount of oxygen carried in red blood cells. Two copies - fatal. One copy - good.Genes undergo ##Mutation## - a new allele appears. Explained how variation exists. Inheritance can be unchanging, but mutations are totally random. Evolution is directionless. Mutations don't occur because organisms need them. Sometimes they can be good, neutral, or bad. Sometimes mutations are fatal. Lamarck was wrong - you can't modify yourself and pass it down.

They still didn't understand the structure of chromosomes. DNA - deoxyfodjfsfjsd acid. Chromosomes are made of large molecules of DNA. Double helix. 4 bases. Before mitosis, unzip, complementary line up, reform. Mutations - changes in the structure of DNA.

Genotype vs Phenotype

Molecular structue can differ from how it is expressed. ##Genotype## - what's there in the DNA. ##Phenotype## - what's observable in the actual organism. G: has 1 red and 1 white. P: it's red. Geno can say one thing but Pheno is expressed another way. Phenotype is just what happens. Organisms can affect their own environments - ##Niche construction## It's too cold. I'm moving. Create different selection pressures if they maintain niche construction. Organisms that are less fit. Humans affect our niche construction to make us more biologically fit. Not strong enough to do anything about that lion, I'll invent a gun. Genetic losers are more likely to move environments. Turning your traits into an advantage. Humans are the ultimate niche constructors.

People developed evolution theory independently in isolation. New discoveries happen all the time. Evolution is very complicated. It's not about going somewhere, it's directionless. Homo sapiens was not inevitable and will not be eternal. All species are time limited.

Lecture 4: May 8, 2017

Microevolution

##Microevolution## is short-term evolutionary change that occured in an ecological time. Generations of living organisms. ##Macroevolution## is long-term that changes in geological time.

Combining ideas of Darwin and Mendel. How Natural Selection works with heredity - ##Neo-Darwinism##. Debunking of the 19th century of race. Wanted to find scientific boundaries of race. Two schools: 1. all people on the planet are the same members of a species, 2. Everyone is members of different species. After WWII, anthropologists rejected the work of physical anthropologists (measuring physical differences of different populations) -> biological anthropology.

Species are separated into ##populations##. They may separate (reproductively isolated)and reintegrated - ##reticulation##. If a population is separated for long enough, they become a different species. Populations of ##organisms##.

Interbreeding between species do not ruin th eboundaries because the offspring are sterile. Horses and Donkeys = mules, but mules are infertile.

##Gene Pool## - All the genes in all the bodies of all the members of a given species. All the genes of all humans. Population genecists estimate frequency of a gene if something happened. Most alleles are polymorphous (range of different forms) - account for m ost of the variation across populations. They have the same alleles but in different frequencies. A, B, O, AB exist in all human populations. Different populations are characterizied more by one blood type than the others. #Private polymorphism## - allele occurs in a given population, but not others, but not all members of the population have it. There is greater variation within racial groups than there is between them. Unlikely bone marrow matches. Perfect genetic bone marrow match - little white boy and black man. Genetically, they are extremely similar. "Race" is a cultural label, not biological. We cluster people by their physical alleles.

Phenotypes shift very gradually from one place to the next. If you mapped skin colour then mapped hair texture, they don't match up. Cline is a gradual phenotypic mapping in a trait. We don't see it unless people who are very far apart on a trait are brought together. Skin pigmentation is distributed the way it is because of natural selection. The closer to the equator you are, the more selective advantage it is to have darker/lighter skin. TRaits are operating on different selective pressures. Each cline is only going to map a single trait. Clinal distributions of different traits do not go together -> disproves race theory.

No biological race!

People trying to resurrect the race theory.

Molecularization of race: ##HUman genome project## - identify all the genes in human DNA. Wanted to sequence all the chemical based pairs, store on databases, improve tools for data analysis. Medical professionals use available data from your group to predict stuff. Focusing on classifying people's genotypes. Race has become a thing - a molecular attribute. Which ancestry markers on which parts of the world. People jusut wanna know ancestrial background to make proxy predictions. Race is not biology, but biology is not genetics. People embody the social inequality of their group. Blood pressure. Puerto rico - darker skin => high blood pressure. The higher the socio-economic status of dark skinned - higher blood pressure. People with darker skin is subject to racist conditions. The higher up the ladder a dark-skinned person goes, the more likely they are to experience intense racism. SKin color + class => higher blood pressure.

Lecture 5: May 10, 2017

4 Evolutionary Processes

Chance plays a large role. Mutation - random. Difficult to predict large-scale natural disasters/migrations and what effect these have. Climate change. Niche construction. Early humans constructed their own niches - control fire, make shelter, clothing. Humans were able to expand their radius - subject to differnt courses of natural selection. Disease and human-made environmental changes. Disease takes advantage of niches we have created. Hunter gatherers - suffered from parasitic infections, or animal diseases. After we domesticated pets, had plants, everything changed. Hunter gatherers - keep moving when trash a place. When you settle down, deal with sanitation. Come into contact with more people. endemic diseases - particular to a population. Measles. Need a million people. Go through entire population. Build up genetic resistance. HIV was an endemic disease. Ebola may become. Kills off people with no resistance before they can breed. The people wo are left are naturally more resistant. Recurring epidemics had a big impact on genetic landscape. The plague - parasitic disease. Fleas, rats. The Black Death. 1/3 of population gone. Over hundreds of hundreds of years, it would come through and kill fewer and fewer people because people were developing a resistance to it. Attaches to the same attachments as HIV does. Some European populations have resistance of HIV. Some people where their attachments are inward facing, so virus can't attach.

Population genetecists predict models. Effects of inbreeding/outbreeding in a population. Inbreeding: increases homozygous - 2 copies of the same gene. Increase desirable traits, but could get undesirable traits. Decreases genetic variation over many generations. If environment changes, this can be a challenge. Mating with outgroups is common. ##Incest taboo## - at some level, outbreeding is maintained. What counts as incest varies. Spanish royal family - died out. Habsburg.

Genetic relationship between populations are best understood with Gene Flow - superficially distinct. Lots of interbreeding in the New World (European, Indigeneous, African). Isolated and brought together. Europeans conquered Indigeneous, ensalved Africans. Indigeneous couldn't resist European diseases and died.

Genetic Drift - bottleneck. What happened on fitcarrin island. Mutiny on the Bounty. Late 18th century. From Tahiti to West. Weren't mature enough - red fruit. Waited for many months - all men. Began relationships with local women. Most men didn't want to leave. Orchestrated mutiny. Chucked Captain Bly off the ship. Bly returned to England. People went to Tahiti to hang them. Didn't find all of them. Some stayed, others left. Invited partners + friends from Tahiti. Abducted them. Went to Pit Karen island. Location was incorrect on the maps. Population of island was 9 British mutineers, polynesions. Founder effect. Not genetically represented of population, creating a population.

Mutation - responsible for creating all the variant alleles. Sometimes beneficial, will spread over time due to natural selection. Sickle cell anemia. In most human populations, only form of hemoglobin. In some, there is a mutant form - not fat. Can't carry much oxygen. Homozygous version is fatal, would predict it would have died out. People who are heterozygous for this allele are much better at resisting Malaria - more genetically fit. So it has survived in these populations. Niche construction - no place for mosquitoes. domestication of plants lead to land clearing, lead rainwater to collect in stagnant pools. Hosts for malarial parasytes were increasing, more Malaria.

Adaptation and Human Variation

Gene expression in a vacuum. Environmental factors can have a big impact. Organisms are always responding to their environment even before they're born. Allergies. Worse in modern industrialization of western countries. Malaui - no peanut allergies. Children who are born to women who live on a farm almost never develop allergies. Even if they move to the city right after they were born. Doesn't matter if you move to a farm after you're born. Dutch Famine - WWII. Germans occupying area made a blockade and prevented food from getting in. Increase in diabetes, cardiovascular disease among descendants of pregnant women in Dutch Famine. Children of those children were smaller. Long-term consequences. Phenotype is responsive to the environment - ##Phenotypic Plasticity##.

Skin colour - variations occur because of interactions between a few different genes. Adaptive response to UV radiation. Similar skin colours have evolved independently in different places in similar conditions. Darker towards equator, lighter away. We don't have hair all over our bodies. We lost fur because we needed to sweat more - developed darker skin. In general, women are paler than men. Babies always paler. UV - more Vitamin D. Indigeneous are paler near equator because they don't have thousands of generatons.

Lecture 6: May 12, 2017

Intelligence - what is intelligence? We tend to think that people who are intelligent are good in formal schooling and succeed in commerce. The tests created are really good at measuring your verbal abilit yan dmathematical logical ability. IQ (Intelligence quotient) Tests - measures your ability to take an IQ test. There are many different kinds of intelligence. Bodily anesthaetic, inter/intrapersonal intelligence, musical intelligence, spatial intelligence. Environmental support can make you better. All kinds of intelligence can be enhanced. Some things you are naturally better at, but you can improve. If you try to make statements about different populations. Highly unlikely that skin colour covaries with intelligence. IQ tests are measuring your ability to take tests (your willingness and value), cultural knowledge. Performance most accurately predicted by your social class and educational background. If control with these, differences between by races are eliminated.

Phenotype, Environment, Culture

Not every single phenotype trait is adaptable. Wings in birds are adaptations, wings in insects are exaptations. It could be a byproduct of some other thing that was shaped by natural selection.

Phenotypes also shaped by the environment. Guatamalans are short, small because of the environment. They didn't get enough food. If born in North America, they are large. People can't grow tall without a good enough nutrition. Genes don't hold the answer to everything. We only have twice as many genes as an earthworm, but are much more complex. Sociobology - behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology, gene-culture co-evolution, cultural group selection, niche construction. Group of evolutionary theorists. Took stuff from ants and applied to humans. Based on mathematical models. Evolutionary psychology was studying selfishness and altruism. Logical deduction about the past is speculative. We reveal our own biases.

Macroevolution

microevolution - at the pace of humans. Macro - geological evolution. Tracing extinctions. Genesis of new species. How did this occur? Fossils. Can study living organisms - map their genomes.

Darwin believed that if you have microevolution, new species are going to happen. There's no such thing as a fixed species. Evolution is gradual as environments change gradually and mutation accumulates gradually. ##Anagenesis## - gradual somthing of species over time (phyletic gradualism) The thing that characterisizes a species gradually changes over time. Can't explain why a single species why a single species can give rise to multiple new species. Why extinction occurs.

##Cladogenesis## - punctuated equilibrium - between fossil breaks, species were pretty stable and show little if any change at all. Stable species exist in an equilibrium. But equilibrium is punctuated by new species. Sudden bursts/changes in environment. They think species are pretty stable. Speciation is the catalyst for adaptive changes. You have natural selection on related species of a single genus. You get branches and overlap, there was some rapid climate change and natural selection happened. Some species are better adaptive. Homosapiens were better adaptive than Neanderthals so Homossapiens survived and Nanderthals did not. Some species are more fit than other sfor different envionmental conditions. Things can change very quickly.

Which one is right? There is evidence for both of these theories.

Primates

Why study primates?

How do biologists classify primates

Taxonomy: system with 7 different lvels. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. King phillip can only find german species. keeping precious c for grumpy scientists. Latin names. Genus name is generic name that is capatilized. 2nd word is species name. Both always in italics.

Prosimians - least complex, lemurs, Anthropoids - monkeys, apes, humans, more advanced -> subdivided into Hominoids - apes, humans, Hominins - only homo sapiens left.

Even if two species have similar adaptations, doesn't mean they're related. Homology - two species have similar adaptations because they desceneded from common ancestor. Homoplasy -two species have similar adaptations but they are not related - because of similar environments in parallel.

##Cladistics## focuses on Homology. Try to determine what is the degree of similarity/difference to get a new species. Which one are from a common ancestor. Phylogenetic species concept. Any group with its own set of characteristics gets their own species.

Different categories of primates:

1. Prosimians - Strepsirrhines. Non-human primates are mostly found in the tropics. Makes them unlike other mammals. We would be the same if we didn't learn to build shelter. Lemurs and lorises. Exclusive to Madagascar. Lorises in africa, asia. The skin between their upper lip and gums is connected. Thye have a tooth comb for grooming. Retain a claw instead of nails. Uterus of females is different. Placenta is different. They used to exist everywhere, but Madagascar split off. Lemurs were isolated from competition. Other primates in africa outcompeted them. When people showed up in Madagascar, lots of them became extinct. Both live in trees and are nocturnal.

Lecture 7: May 15, 2017

Haplorhines - Tariers & Anthropoids.

##Tarsiers##: small, nocturnal, enormous eyes, mainly eat insects, very cute. Bad pets. Commit suicide in captivity - will bash themselves in the head.

##Anthropoids## - the monkeys, apes, humans.

##New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines)## - In the new world. In americas. Platyrrhines mean they have sidways pointing nostrils. More teeth. Some have prehensile tails - can wrap around trees. They all live in trees (arboreal). Only branch of anthropoids we can find in the americas.

##Old World Monkeys (Catarrhines)## - Nostrils point down. Some live on ground.

Among old world monkeys, two different branches - Colobines and Cercopitthecines. Colobines - all arboreal. Have 4-chambered stomachs - eat a lot of leaves. Cercopithecines - some arboreal, some ground-dwelling. Baboons. Single male groups. Flexible behaviour. Macaques.

The Catarrhines are subdivided into old world monkeys and Hominoidea - apes, humans. We have smaller canines, different molars, different jaws. We don't have tails, apes don't have tails. Apes - lesser apes, great apes. Lesser apes - gibbons, etc. Great apes - orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos. Hominids/Hominins.

Some apes are more closely related to others. We're more related to bonobos and chimps (98%). But very close to all of them. 97% with gorillas. 95% with orangutans. Chimps/bonobos in hominids. humans in hominins. We've outcompeted all of them. Gibbons - Hylobatidae - no sexual dymorphism - males and females are the same size - manogomous. Orangutans live in rainforest in Indonesia - endangered - very solitary - hard to study - societies. We know more about Gorillas than ORangutans. Gorillas live in Africa - very endangered. Leakys sent out researchers. Don't have many offspring. Chimpanzees. Bonobos look like chimpanzees - thought they were subspecies of chimps, but they're a different species. Central Africa south of a river. Not as robust, strong. Longer legs. Chimps - Bands of unrelated males. Bonobos - strong female bonds, strong bonds. Sex is very important in Bonobos social behaviour. Sexual behaviour is more about social interaction - how conflicts get settled. Chimps make tools.

Ethnoprimatology

Study of interactoins between humans and other primates. Humans are agriculturalists, and primates are raiders of crops. Lots of conflict between the two groups. We use primates as tourist attractions in conversation areas. look at how primates are affected by humans. Great apes require forests and reproduce slowly - they cna't recover very fast. We cut down all the trees - habitat destruction. Sold as pets, as meat. Some primates co-exist really well with humans - baboons, macaques.

Patterns in Primate Evolution

What separatesprimates from other living things? Ancestral characteristics, past evolutionary trends, unique features. Some ancestral characteristics - 5 digits on hands and feet, clavical - for shoulder-joint flexibility, clantagrade locomotion - palms of hand, soles of hand for moving. Evolutionary trends - increasing brain size relative to body size, increasingly complex neo-cortex (complex thought), reduction of prognathism (reduction in snouts, flatter faces, decrease reliance on smell, dry nose), increase dependance on sight - eyes have relocated to the front, overlapping visual field - really good depth pereption - stereocopic vision, not as many teeth, increasing infant dependance - decrease dependance on instinct. Unique features - opposable thumbs, most have nails instead of claws, finger and toes with lots of nerve endings, dermal ridges - fingerprints, toeprints, bottom of prehensile tails.

How didi they come about? Aboreal adaptations, switch to plant eating.

When did it happen?

65 million years ago. Dinosaurs died out on mass. Everything changed. Around when the first primates appeared. A number of epochs.

Lecture 8: May 17, 2017

[VIDEO] Introduction to Primates - Anne Zeller

Prosimians and Anthropoids. Prosimians: wet nose, giant eyes, nocturnal, big snout. Anthropoids: Tariers, New World Monkeys, Old World Monkeys, Apes. New World: wet nose, far apart eyes, depend on smell, non-flat face, hearing, some nocturnal. Old World Monkeys - flat face, dry nose,

Lecture 9: May 18, 2017

Dating Methods in Archaeology and Paleoanthropology

How do you get a date? Arachaeology's Dirty Little Secrets. Archaeology Dating LEcture PPart 1 Brown

Typology- classification of objects of types on the basis of characteristics. Artifact styles change over time.

Seriation - process of lining things up. Relative dating method. Arranging things in a presumed chronoligical sequence based on cultural stylistic change. Can reconstruct a relative sequence. Develop a sense of progression. Can say roughly where it lies on a chronological sequence. Where in the development of cars does this lie? Doesn't always work because styles come back - retro.

Want absolute date. Could be on the artifact - coins, time capsules. Coins give the date of the stratum of where it was found. Terminus ante quem (TAQ) - the date before which a straum artifact must have been deposited. Terminus post quem (TPQ) - the date after which a stratum/artifact must have been deposited. You find a floor - lying on the floor at 43 BCE. The floor dates before 43BCE, gives TAQ. If coin was below the floor, gives TPQ - coin came before the floor.

How else could you get dates?

3 methods of absolute dating:

Dendrochronology - time from trees - a ring a year - rainfall, temperature.

Radiocarbon dating

Law of superposition - how strate are laid down - formation of earth's surface. lower layers are older cause of sedementation. Law of crosscutting relationships - when you get older rock formations that are crosscut - earthquake, things are jossled out of sequence, intruding features are younger. Biostratugraphic dating - relative - distrubution in layers. Seriation - relative dating method based on the asumption that artifacts that look alike must have been made more or less at the same time.

Lecture 10: May 24, 2017

Obsidian Hydration. Obsidian - volcanic glass. Humans have used it as a tool. If you fracture it, it absorbs water at a known rate. Hydration layer gets thicker and you can measure it. If you can tell it was fractured by human activity, it's useful. Lots of different kinds of obsidian - only some rates are known. Rate of obsidion hydration. Date back to 7.2 million years ago. Cheap method of getting a date. If used as a tool, measure it. Lots of people waiting on funding to get a date on stuff.

##Numerical Dating(Absolute Dating): ##Isotopic methods: scientific knowledge of rate of decay of radioactive isotypes. We know the rate of decay. Potassium-argon dating - radioactive potassium 40 will decay into argon 40 at a known rate. If you wanna find out how old a volcanic rock is, easy. Volcanic eruption - all of the argon 40 escapes. As lava cools, potassium degrades into argon. Amount of argon 40 must have shown up there after lava started to cool. Can date argon 40 based on half life, accurate up to a certain point. Standard deviation of +/- 10. Bad thing: volcanic rock isn't conveniently located next to/ on top of your fossils.

Model prehistoric climates - figure out what climates would've been when they made their materials. Figure out selection pressures. Deep sea sediments - don't suffer from erosion. Ocean water has to kinds of oxygen - 1 heaver than the other. Glaciation - all of the lighter type gets taken up into the glacier (on top). Warming - lighter type goes back (melts). What kinds of oxygen you're finding. Look at skeletons of microscopic -foriminiferell - also contain oxygen. Scientists know broad climate changes - why do they occur? We know why the current one is occurring, but past ones ?? Corellate to human evolution. Cooling period -> diversification of hominoids. Drier climate -> hominoid extinctions, appearance of first homosapiens.

What can the fossil record tell us about human origins

##Hominins## bipedal hominoids (apes, humans). We can walk on two feet for long distances. First began to appear at the end of the Miocene. A lot of grasslands were expanding at the expense of the forest. A lot of hominoids began to die out because selection pressures changed. Primates were arboreal, and then trees begone. Some hominoids began to adapt to these changes by spending more time on the ground. The selection pressures favoured bipedalism in some species. Some species developed the adaptation. We are the only hominins left. There were a lot of species in the past. Us vs. apes. Increasing brainsizetobody ratio, really different teeth. We're the product of ##Mosaic evolution## - all of our traits appeared at different times, different rates.

Bipedalism

All primates have the ability to have upright posture, when they are in trees. Some can walk upright for short distances. Our ancestors, this ability was already present, but it was developed for an arboreal environment. The ability to be upright was exapted to be on ground. Forests gone, move easily on ground. Makes it easier to see predators on the ground. Make you faster at running. Reduces exposure of your skin to the sun (not whole back). Became less hairy because we didn't need the hair anymore. Uses less energy. Access more resources, endurance hunting (go farther, keep going don't have to be fast). Early hominins were omnivores, similar to contemporary chimpanzees. As grasslands grew bigger, spread out. Free hands - chuck spears at things, carry stuff (babies). Babies lose the ability to cling. Moro reflex (flinch on back) - if babies fell from a tree, it would make them bigger and easier to catch.

Earliest hominins - ##Australopiths##. Oldest remains get their own genus because we don't have enough. Things get regrouped all the time.

Lecture 11: May 26, 2017

Hominin Dentition

Teeth of Australopiths - first ventured off from trees, they had to explore new food resources. First changes in diet were visible in A.afarensis. (Pic) Ape, A.Afarensis, Human (homo sapiens sapien. Ape has u-shaped arch, HSS has parabolic arch. Ape canines are bigger, they have bigger spaces - disatyma. To close their job, they need dyastima. Among apes, largest teeth are canines. Our molars are bigger. AAfarensis canies are smaller, dyastima smaller, molers are the biggest, molars are bigger than apes and ours. They needed molars because they were eating vegetable foods for grinding, less ripping/biting (canines).

The Human Transition

Man the hunter philosophy - traditional view in paleoanth is that larger brains were selected for because we needed to manufacture all of these stone tools. Matched gender ideals at the time - large, tough, masculine men sticking spears in things, providing for weak, domestic women/children. Research -> there were a lot of plant-eating hominins walking around. They were more scavengers than hunters. Most contemporary hunters/gatherers groups - plant eating is more important.

Early Homo

Early homo genus. 2.5-2mya, change in the weather - drying. Mass wave of extinctions. Speciation. Gracile disappeared - evolved into later homospecies but not sure. New hominins - bigger brains from 400-520 to 600. Robustus carried on. Louis leaky first discovered the first one of these - Homo habalus - the handy man - stone tools. Too much variation for them all to be the same homo habulus. Thinner, rounder skulls. Smaller faces, flatter. Start to see parabolic arch in teeth. Bigger brains - result of natural selection. Early co-existed with Robustus. WE don't know if they were ancestors to humans.

Stone tool manufacture - We don't know what tools they were using until they used stones because stones were perserved. More advanced than termite fishing sticks. #Oldowan Stone tool Tradition#. Sharper and pointier. Bashed off flakes. They have wear marks - to distinguish from regular rocks. Animal bones - butchered or not. Cut marks are on top of teeth marks - lions. Lions kill, early homos take dead animal to butcher.

Homo erectus

Early homo fossils disappeared 1.8mya. They evolved into homo erectus or became extinct and were replaced by h.erectus. ##Homo erectus## was still coexisting with robust australopiths. Overlapped. H.erectus - migrating out of africa. 12 yo boy - Turcana boy skeleton - would have been over 6 feet tall if he lived into adulthood. Slim. Probably hairless. Could not speak - wasnt as developed. Remains in Repub of Georgia, Java, China, none in Western Europe, but there have been artifacts. Cranial capacity was 1000 cm3. Humans is 1400. Heavy brow ridges. Smaller molers. Different diet - enamel wear. More robust than us. REduced sexual dimorphism like us. Culture - Acheulian Tradition - more sophisticated tools - bisomething hand axe. Lasted for 1mil years. Not a lot of stone tools in Asia - bamboo, but it decays. Clearly using fire. Were they hunting? Find bones with tools. Possibly. They would have been good endurance runners based on their bodies. Australopithecines were good walkers, but not fast. Endurance running is a unique human trait. We can run for longer. We need special adaptations for endurance running - larger butt muscles, tender something, to keep running, you have to sweat a lot. Running generates heat - most animals overheat. Why hunt? Suggestion: they had fire to make meat taste better. Are they our ancestors? They were anatomically modern. Very stable species.

Homo sapiens

H.erectus died out. Archaic homosapiens. homo heidelbergensis - probably ancestral to humans. Not stable. What happened?

Neadertals

Spain. 130kya. German - Neader valley where they were first found. More robust. Shorter. Massive skulls. Large brow ridges for men. Not much of a chin. Teeth placed forward - using incisors as clamps to do things. 1500 cm3 cranial capacity - larger than us. Forehead not as high. Same left/right brain asymmetry. For the most part are right-handed. Stronger grip. Heavily-muscled. Ice age. Warmer places looked liek this. Pelvis was longer and thinner. Are they a different specis or are they a sub species? Probably homo sapiens neandertalis. Suggestion we exchanged genes with them

Lecture 12: May 29, 2017

Neandertals were associated with Mousterian Tradition (tools). Associated with all archaic sapiens. Differs from Oldewan and achulian. They're mainly flake tools. ##Levallois technqiue## - start out with a core, strike things off the sides, then strike it in half, fine retouching. Much thinner. More varied. Lots of tool traditions, more culture. Lots of harths - fire, pits - leaves traces of soil, postholes - what's left after you stick a post in the ground - leaves stain in soil even if wood has decayed, buried their dead in fetal position (suggests beginnings of religion) - show signs of injury, disease, healed injury. To survive, they must have been cared for by others. No other artifact evidence - nothing to suggest anything else.

Neandertals - hunting. Spears - thrown, tied and thrown. Driving animals off of cliffs. Neandertal bones butchered - maybe cannibals, maybe predator. Contemporary: removing flesh from bone for burial.

Homo sapiens sapiens

We used to be just Homo sapiens. More than one Homo sapiens. We've reached a stable sapiens sapiens. Africa - population of humans. Anatomically human - cranial capacity of 1300+, domed heads (more forehead), round brain cases, flatter faces, chins, less robust (getting less and less robust). Reinforced by niche construction, increasingly dependant on culture. Making more clothes, building more shelters. Less affected by lack of strength.

Earliest evidence: Etheopia. 200k years ago. We've overlapped with the Neandertals for a long time. Different tool traditions. Modern humans were in Africa for a long time before anywhere else. Emerged there and hung out. Neandertals were in Europe and Asia. After a while, humans moved out -> coexistence between neandertals and humans for 45k. Neandertals not ancestral to humans because at the same time as them.

Mitochondrial DNA - not subject to selection pressures. Used for analysis. Analysis suggests that humans emerged ~200kya. Able to extract DNA genome of Neadertals. Mitochondrial DNA only from mother. Other DNA suggests that anyone who is not of African descent, 1-4% of genome contains Neandertal DNA. None of modern DNA shows up in neandertal DNA. Interbreeding probably occurred in Southwest Asia. Mostly out of Africa is probably the most accurate - DNA evidence supports it.

Denisova - uncovered remains, thought Neandertals, 40-30kya, after Neandertals. Genetically distinct from Neandertals, but not modern humans. Possibly Denisovians and Neandertals come from same ancestor.

Homo sapien neandertalis and Homo sapien sapiens.

Could Neandertals talks? Homo erectus couldn't. Hyoid bone - helps us talk, almost never preserved. DNA of Neandertals - FOXP2 gene - linked to language capabilities, suggests that they had the ability to talk. DNA suggests that Spanish Neandertals were pale with red hair.

Culturally - mousterian tools started to disappear. More complicated tools began to appear. Blades, smaller tools. Things were being hafted to wood, bone, antler, ivory - sticking it to a stick (spear with a point). Bows and arrows start to appear - composite - lots of interchangeable parts. Abandoned Mousterian tradition. Artifacts, jewelry, decoration. People suggest a reorganization of the brain. No way of knowing why they abandoned Mousterian

what happened to Neandertals? If they gradually evolved into humans, why the cultural change? Mixed assemblages -gradual replacement or borrowing? Neandertals disappeared ~5k years of coexisting with humans. No suggestion of humans conquesting. Unlikely that Neandertals evolved into humans. There was interbreeding, but not a lot. Maybe the species boundaries - infertile offspring. Sometimes fertile, but probably not. Minimal hybridization. Neandertals were outcompeted. When coexisting, all usd same stone tools for 45k years. Something happened, humans moved out, and better at surviving.

How do we know about the human past?

Archaeology proper.

What is Archaeology?

Archaeologists mainly interested in the archaeological record - material evidence of human modification of the physical environment. Non-portable stuff. Architecture, irrigation, farming - leave traces. Past-tense of cultural anthropology. Culture of the people who aren't around anymore. No informants.

How do they reconstruct the past? First archaeologists - reconstruct material remains. Gluing pot togetherHeinrich schliemann - found Troy. People thought Homer only made a good story. Schliemann believed in happened. He found it. He stole artifacts. Just used dynamite. Blew up Troy. They were not very good at recording stuff.

Became interested in reconstructing the lifeways. Got better at keeping records. 1960s - interested in cultural processes - Processial Archaeology. Let's make it into an objective science, was just rich people digging stuff up and not recording it. Make mappings of artifacts - statistical analysis. Crossover with cultural anthro - Julian Steward - interested in what effect the environment had on the culture. OVerlooked the role of human agency. Very focused on the environment.

Recently: Interpretice archaeology - symbolic and congitive aspects of culture, social hierarchy, ideology. Internal fault lines of society, where were the conflicts, why. Pointed out flaws of predecessors - wasnt just environment.

Most recent: what is its role in the stewardship in archaeological sites. Conserving the archaeology for future generations. Wait for future technology. Can't excavate a site without destroying it. Act of excavation is dustruction. Don't dig the whole thing. Leave some for later generations.

Lecture 13: May 31, 2017

A lot of things don't get left behind. Wood deteriorates. "The Stone Age". Those things last, can find in the ground. Pottery - ceramics survive. ##Preservation## is important. Good preservation in extreme climates. Mountaintops - human refrigerator. If conditions are right, we'll find more than just stones and bones. The Ice Man - found in a glacier. 5000 years. Analyzed stomach for his last meal. Cooking pots - look at food residue.Sites for good preservation - volcanos, mudslides, bogs.

Sometimes doesn't involve excavating. Why dig? We have so much to analyze. Surveying for what is a good site. Excavations take a lot of time and money - need grants. It's disruptive. Can't dig without destroying it. Remote sensing technologies - can tell wihat's in the site without digging.

Excavation

Systematic uncovering of archaeological remains through the removal of deposits of soil or whatever else is covering them. Excavation is destruction - once it's out, it's out. Today, archaeologists no longer fully excavate. Dig small bits of it and leave the rest for future generations who will have better methods. ##Multilayered sites## - different levels of occupying. Interested in chang eover space and time (depth). More levels of occupation there are, the more likely the layers will have been disturbed. ##Record Keeping## - have to record with photographs. Wooden building - stains soil. Act of digging the post hole destroys it Have to record where it was. Shoveling off to the side. Have to know all the work. Weather may affect. Have to sort out everything. conserve them. Important to not clean the artifact. Artifacts placed in typologies. People always assumed it was indicitive of culture - sometimes it is, sometimes is not. Earrings - worn by a particular group, but not worn by neighbouring groups. Tells you who the people were. If you find pots and tools, you can't make the same assumption because they're not associated with groups. Want to know why they moved into villages. Artifact distribution can answer questions. It's an interpretation.

##Digital Heritage## - programs and techniques adapted from other uses to archaeology. Website for digital heritage, anyone can come and look at it. You have to maintain it. Have to be made online to everyone to whom it is important. Keep things to a certain standard. Have to preserve analog materials along with the digital materials. A lot of digital collections are much richer than analog ones. Those are bones of my ancestors, take them down. Curation.

##Subsistence strategies## of societies - satisfying basic needs for food, clothing, shelter. Human niche construction. Food collectors - small-scale foragers, complex foragers. Food producers - herders, farmers. Food collectors vs. producers. Different strategies. Different environments. Small-scale - on the side, move a lot. Complex foragers - permanent dwellings. Food collection continued side by side with food production. The first food producers only grew on the side. When times are tough, people go collect food full time.

Lecture 14: June 2, 2017

Time Team - 3 days to survey and excavate a location. Wessex Archaeology - official report. Every week had a report. Saxons on the Edge. Angle Saxon sites - difficult to find. Looking for the remains of wooden structures. S15E09. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=58Pr1mvMpDQ

3 days to find out if it's an Anglo Saxon settlement. The Dark Ages. Knave Hill. Pottery. Stick a trench in. Locate best place for trench - geophys. Look for postholes. Could be saxon or earlier, before romans (iron age). Difficult to find AngloSaxon because no tmuch pottery at the time. Buildings were timber. Not a lot of metalwork. It's like faeries, you've got to believe before you find it. Spacing of potholes. Well-dated pottery in the potholes. Concentration of pottery. Big stain - grubhut - anglosaxon building with a sunken floor. Iron Age pottery - 500 yrs before saxons. Hand dig. Not a grubhut. Subsistence economy - produce with their patch of ground. Tend to go for the same areas - iron age and anglo saxons. Mother's side - mitochondrial - some woman - one of the first people to come to britain after the ice age. Father's side - Celt. Needle.

Lecture 15: June 5, 2017

People who herd, people who farm, people who do both. Herding - also called Pestoralism. Different kinds of farming: Extensive - Slash and burn farming - need a lot of land for it - clear area of land, burn area for ash for soil, farm plot of land for period of time, move on to the next plot of land. Usually go in an area, cycle through lands. Lower tech - hoes and digging sticks. Intensive farming - less land but farm intensively, fertilizer (manure), plow agriculture, irrigation, increate productivity of land so you can keep farming it. Mechanised industrial agriculture - tractors, common in Canada. How they use land, what kind of crop yield. Small, big, biggest (in terms of the 3).

Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States.

Classifying societies in terms of what political structure they have. Louis Henry Morgan - certain political structures go with certain climate/technological environments. Idea: Unilineal cultural evolution - all societies progress in the same stages in the same ordero - people start out as savages, then barbarian with private property, have technologies and political organisations, then civilized - learn to write, etc. Racist way of thinking about things - Victorian was pinnacle of civilization - measure other societies against it. Didn't have data to back it up - speculative guesswork. Others picked it up. People began to come up with economical/political categories.

Groups can go back and forth between different levels.

Whose past is it?

Archaeology sites have been important markers to the identity among people who think they are descendants. Machu Pichu - very remote but 300k go there every year, Pyramids, Acropalypse in Athens, Great Zimbabwe. Meanings that local people ascribe to these sites don't always coincide with latest archaeological results. Latest results are not well received. Sites are big tourist sites. A lot of people with hiking boots - can cause damage to sites. Important to local people to use it to make money. Not all people want tourists in their backyard, or archaeologists. Many people want to uncover their own past and keep the artifacts. A lot of people want museums to return their artifacts. Elgen marbles - went to Greece and brought back to britain. Greece wants back.Sacred objects on display for years that were never meant to be seen - disrespectful. Disputes - why should paleolithic hand axes from Kenya remain in Kenya? No more Homo erectus - we are all descendants, wouldn't we all benefit in seeing them? Skeletons - what do we do about human remains? Recovered from intentional burials - people who believe themselves as descendants may not want them to be disturbed. Depends on region - most Europeans don't care about digging up remains - happy about excavations. In North America - a lot of materials here are from native americans - first nations people are angry that excavated and analyzed - felt that disturbed sacred grounds - sign of disrespect. Religious and political objections - US has NAGPRA - NAtive American Grave Protection and ... Act. Requires that all federal institutions that receive federal funds have to take inventory of all firstnations remains and artifacts - determine whether there are links between any living groups - relevant group has to be contacted and must offer repatriation. Protects lands. Any archaeologist working on land has to consult with local group. People will strike compromises. Keep 1 tooth of every individual. Lots of conflict, compromise, collaboration. Native groups will work with arch. to make their own museums. Kennewick Man - discovered in Washington in '96. Not immediately handed over to local First Nations people - assumed it was a white settler. Radiocarbonated to be more than 9k years old. Remains were in control of US army of engineers - just repatriate to local group. Then, 8 anthropologists sued them for permission - too old to be related to any contemporary group. FN says they were there as long as time. 8 years to side with scientists. 4 dif tribes and US department appealed decision - scientists got remains but given 10 days to study, make casts. Now no one gets to study, no one gets to bury. A lot of remains in Australia were collected unethically - grave robbing to sell bones to museums.

Destruction of heritage. Taliban government blew stone sculptures - Buddha. Buddhists were part of Afghan heritage. Taliban destroyed many artifacts in museums. Irreplacable. Land development - always something under that land and you're destroying it. Agriculture - plow damage - churned up - not on purpose. Farming and development can't be stopped but they can be made more sensitive. Looting - ransacking sites for goods that can be sold on the black market - since time imamorial. Scale of destruction today is huge. Looters - context is destroyed. Museums would look the other way for donations - now need certificate. A lot of countries have laws that protect heritage - examine before land development - environmental assessment. Commercial archaeology - Cultural Resource Management (CRM) - ensure that cultural resources threatened by projects are responsibly managed or salvaged - major source of income for most archaeologists today.

Archaeology and Gender - arch research is seen in lens of things important in the day. Contemporary social issues cause archaeologists to rethink their conclusions.

Vast majority of archaeologists were men. By 1980's, more equal discipline. Women's movement at this time. Women's contributions had been written out of the archaeological record - archaeological bias - focus on men's work. Feminist archaeologists reexamined older things. Idea that there were only 2 sex roles - lots of societies had more than 2 genders. Assumed only men hunted, only women gathered. Study of stone tools (lithic analysis) - always assumed that stone tools were made by men to do manly things - focused on production of stone cores (axes, spears) - assumption that women weren't making these tools cause they had no use for it - but living groups who still use stone tools - women made more than 50% of the tools because they ahd to do food processing and leatherworking. Women were making core tools as well, and made flake tools. Need to reexamine evidence - shouldnt make the assumption.

##GEnder archaeology## - insights from different fields. Identity - how do people recognize themselves as same/different from others. Can't look at things and assume they have a universal meaning. Venus figures - highly unlikely women looked like that because not enough food. Couldv'e been fertility figures. Figurines of animals, men, and fertility figures. Sculptures of women were the only ones wearing textiles, but they didnt actually wear textiles. Idea that gender may not have been that significant. Malaui - age was greater marker of social standing than gender. Two Spirits burials - Two spritis individual is someone who performs the work of the opposite gender. Male wears the clothing and does the work of females. They're going to stand out from the graves of other people - assumed male skeletons with baskets (given baskets for recognition) - not the case - baskets were associated with all kinds of dif graves. Two male skeletons with female form of arthtiritis with digging sticks and baskets - maybe two spirits. Also associated with work with undertakers - could be two spirits or post menopausal women. Maybe occupation not gender was significant.

Lecture 16: June 7, 2017

Guest Lecture. Dr Wes Adams. Archaeologist.

The NAtufian Culture.

10k years - short period of time.

Beginning: Geological history of the planet Earth. 6.5b years ago - Cenozoic, etc. Primitive ancestors of human lineage. The Quaternary - Pleistocene - Holocene period - where all the evolution of human history fits. Apes emerged in miocene. We are a recent development. Holocene very important - brief summer of the earth - the entire planet got enough warmth, humidity, rainfall that certain bio systems flourished - how humans evolved into us. Pleisotcene was a rough period.

Human development - emerges in upper paleolithic (last 60k years). Almost all archaeology reflected in stone tools. H. habilis - oldewan. Acheulian. Mousterian - more and more specific purposes - becoming tools.

Timeline of anaotmically modern humans (homo sapiens sapiens). Caves - vast majority of upper paleolithic sites. How humans adapted to environment in which they lived. Holocene - just right for human development. Large massive stone tools to being smaller, adaptable tools. Sites have art - cave paintings. Range of different types of food. Mobiliart - mobile art - carved stones. Creation of human form in art. Human by a human.

Subsistence patterns - hunting scenes in cave paintings. Emergence of thought processes of humans being recorded.

Fertility figurines - full-figured, perhaps pregnant. never with the face of the individual. Idea of a person. Probably related to childbirth. Magical processes. Humans are developing a thought process. Flute. Social processes - like ritual.

Social organization - likely small bands, covered fairly large territories to find enough food. Mobile hunter-gatherers. Hunting takes up vast majority of their time.

The Fertile Crescent - Along river to survive. Plant geographic zones - 4 primary kinds of plant zones. Mediterranean Forest - oak and pistachio, Irano-Turanian steppe - foothills of large mountains - rainfall - grasses (barley, wheat, oat), Saharo-Arabian Desert, Sudanian Desert - rocky. Following grasses into Irano-Turanian. Spread out into slightly less ideal landscapes.

The Epi-paleolithic period (25-15k ya). Flint industries - Kebaran Lithic industries. Microblade technology. Small cores and microlith. Humans adapting to subsistence strategies. Evolving, exploiting environment. Final phase - Natufian - Dorothy Garrod - Shukba Cave - key changes in the chipped stone - micro burin technology - tool used to create another tool. Backed lunates - polish on them - vegetabels -> first farmers. Increased number of ground stone tools - grinding vegetables to powders. Natufian culture. Settled societies.

HUman societies moving into Iranian Turanian. Great evidence of Natufian cultures.

Phases - 3 phases based on chipped stone assemblages.

Climate and climate change - Change was very dramatic. pollen, fauna. Climate change in Natufian period - shifting between dryer/wetter phases. Early were wetter than later - Rainfall decreased. Accustomed to eating grasses, population increases. Dryness -> things dry out, food mroe scarce. Cycle. Humans trying to adapt within changing climate. When rainfall increases, doesn't reach same levels of beginning.

Key aspects of Natufian culture:

Technology - innovative, adapt. Whole range of tools. Processing plant material. Grinding tools. Sickles - precise. Bone tools - using micro burin. Decoration - geometric patterns, faces, animal figurines. Art. Symbolic representations.

HUmans in small bands, climate change, tools to survive within small band-scale societies.

Socila organization - personal adornment - beads. Working as groups and the individual. Decorating themselves to differentiate themselves from group. Clusters of huts. Early architecture. Tightly clustered. Modify landscape. Burials. Personal adornment.

Subsistence - mobile foragers to sedinterized populators w agriculture. Hunting was ez. Lots of plant resourcces too. Foraging and hunting still exist, because settle down -> different patterns of exploitation of resources.

Sedentism - the practice of establishing a permanent, year-round settlement. Humans become sedetarized - stable. Evidence: cereal. Commensals - house mice, rats.

First farmers - first to move humans towards farming.

Lecture 17: June 9, 2017

Up to where he finished. Were they first farmers

Most of human prehistory, humans were hunter gatherers for 10s of thousands of years. 10k years ago, 3 major developments

Domestication - humans were quite dependant on culture. Some paid more attention to some parts of material world than others. Some people slipped into domesticating plants/animals. Once you make them, it's not always possible to go back. Why different groups of people developed these adaptations? Environment.

Humans hunter gatheres until 10k years ago - what happened? Signifant for Natufians - the dryness. End of Pleistocene era (the Ice Age). Ice sheets retreating, sea levels rising, environment changing dramatically. Human response - attempting to interfere with reproduction of other species to make them more suitable for us - domestication. Occurred independently about 7 different times between 10-4kya. Hominin ancestors (homo ss) were relying on niche construction. Less and less they wre adopting morphologically. They were creating niches for themselves. We don't have fur when we live in Canada - we do other things - clothing, shelters, fire. Niche construction has been important. 10kya were about to get much better at it.

Plants - was plant cultivation deliberate or accidentally? Big debate. David something - believe that accidentally - Foraging and dropping seeds - Mutualism - humans and cereal plants mutually dependant on each other. Ants and acasia trees. Trees feed ants, ants protect trees - modified one another's selective pressures. We probably deliberately selected plants that suited us - easier to harvest, more nourishing, tasted better. Arch. who say deliberate are feminist arch because women were gatherers. Women were probably be the early drivers of domestication and plants. Not just people and plants. Ecology - usually modified in the process of domestication. Cultivating is something different. To cultivate, you have to prepare the fields, plant the seeds, sow the seeds, weed things, store things - new way of thinking about subsistence. Proabbly gradual process, required new tools.

Domesticated species rely on the habitats that we create for them. Agriculture is systematically modified the environment of plants and animals to make them more productive/useful for us. Seems like it was probably deliberate - increase yield of wild plants/animals that they were already exploiting. Decrease risk - We know cereal grains like disturbed environments so let's burn this land and next year there will be more - they are weeds. Lots of animals feed on cereal, maybe humans were creating to attract more deer.

Sedentism - increasingly permanent habitation in one place. Remaining in one place. Foragers much more mobile. Not synonymous with farming. Settled down before cultivating. First Nations - sendentary society. Rich natural resources of NW Coast - permanent settlements around reliable resources. Salmon. Harvested salmon like crops. Don't have to domesticate them. Just wait. Probably occured when humans began to depend on some resources. Began constructing niches to make them even more reliable. Modifies selction pressures of the ppeople who take it up. Modified on self and plants/animals. As you depend on cereals, you settle down, you domesticate them, support bigger population. New selection pressures - agriculture passes, disease organisms (spread easily). African farmers - stagnant water - mosquitoes - malaria - sickle cell allele. If people didn't farm there, malaria would not be an issue.

Domestication of wheat - What did they have to deal with? Wheat is attached to plant stock with a brittle rachis - want seeds to snap off - will fall out and disperse. Seeds don't ripen all at the same time. Dispersed more widely - some will go farther at dif times - spreads out. Seeds protected by a hard husk. No benefit. We want a rachis that will only break when we want it to. Want all to ripen at the same time. Want more of them - as many as we can get. Domesticated wheat - became larger part of our diet. Made it better for ourselves.

Domstication of animals - capture and tame animals that have desirable characteristics. Most people not into taming tigers. Remove them from their natural conditions and put them in controlled conditions. Once we domesticate, there are more. They benefit from us, we also benefit them cause we eat them. people tried to domesticate animals they tried to hunt - they are mobile - had to confine them - they become dependant on us. Can protect animals from predators, supply them food or take them to places, control reproduce or not. We construct niche of animals, we affect their selection pressures and ours. If we become dependant on meat or milk, we have to follow or lead the herd. Gotta be with them. Herders have discovered that not everyone likes it when you lead yoru herd onto a farm - pasture on fields. animals after harvested to leave their dung. Before harvest, would start wars. Diseases come from animals - more highly concentrated groups. More concentrated when domesticated than wild. Epidemic diseases like big populations. Animal epidemics will jump the species barrier - affect humans. Measles - cattle disease. Tuberculosis - jumped - now bovine and human versions.

. How we know an animal domesticated? Outside of its natural range, morphological changes - domesticated sheep have smaller horns, dont need to defend selves, age and sex of bones can be characteristic - if lots of immature males, you only need a few males to reproduct an entire herd - aggressive immature males get eaten. A meat herd looks like a lot of young animals. Adult females - dairy herd. Abrupt population explosion. Dog was the first - man's best friend - 16kya - very easy - just get a puppy wolf and feed it. It loves you and hangs around you. Wolves are predators like us. Probably domesticated to help in a hunt or deter other predators. Other animals were domesticated for food, dogs not food. People experimented with all different kinds of animals that didn't work. None of africa animals are domesticated - elephants, tame elephants but not domesticated.Lots of species cannot breed in captivity. Too fierce, don't want to tame. Wildebeasts cant be tamed. Water buffalos, zebras, giraffes. Sheep, goats are harmless. Hippos will kill you. Sheep, goats were easy - domesticated separately. Goats first then sheep. Cattle, pigs later. Lots of people had great idea of domesticating cattle. Pigs - Turkey around 8kya.

Not all hunted have been domesticated. Controlled hunting of gazelles - but never domesticated - did change though. Reindeer herders.

Why? What drove domestication? Lots of hard work. Hunting/gathering is easier. Happened over and over again independently over history. Could've been climate change, population pressure. Probably more than one thing going on. ##Broad spectrum foraging## - ice age drew to close, pleistocene megafauna all died out (wooly mammoth, cave bears, sabretooth tigers, dire wolves) - probably climate change or we killed them (overhunted). Increasing numbers of smaller animals were taking over these same niches. Forests/woodlands expanding. Sea levels rising. Population growth. Eat food that was not very desirable to them like wild grains. Difficult to harvest, but easy to domesticate. Good explanation for new world. Other drivers - social driver - small groups had competitive feasting - warfare - people wanting to produce own food to flatten neighbours - hard to find evidence. Regional approach - processes may not have been the same in diff areas - multiple strand theories - what was going on with climate, population, state of technology, social organization, diet.

Lecture 18: June 12, 2017

Natufians - first farmers?

Domestication of plants/animals eslewhere(not natufians)

Complex foragers with lots of stuff. Not one driver that applies to all. Natufians - younger dryas spurred domestication, but did not apply to other places. Younger dryas happened elsewhere, but did not drive domestication there. Population pressure - factor in natufians but not americas. Climate change seems to be a precondition to do domestication, but just because you have that doesnt mean you're gonna go ahead and domesticate.

Social complexity - pretty egalitarian. People retained foraging habits - cultiavted on side. Over time, things changed - southwest asia in fertile creescent, egypt, indis valley, china, mesoamerica, andies. More complex societies. All independently invented social stratification - organized societies differently. People had a place in society - how much power, wealth, prestige. Only way you can do this if you start to produce a surplus. Can't if you just produce just what you need. Surplus -> people can store surplus and gain control. Those people can stop producing. Frees up people for craft specialization - don't have to produce because they can make pots. New classes of people - rulers, specialists, everyone else. Complex - society with large population, has an extension division of labour, occupational specialization.

Archaeological evidence of social complexity - .

Why did stratification begin. People were living in bands. Farming and herding - tribal - not entirely egalitarian. Chiefdom - natufian - chief have elevated status. States - stratified - territories - army - institutions, elite, taxes, specialized craft, writing - 1 state in region, others pop up. 1 state conquering all other states -> Empire. State - monumental architecture, craft specialization, 3 levels or more. Walled towns, lots of weapons. Writing - write about war. Interstate conflict.

Why? Foraging was successful - less work. Long time, thought settle down, social complexity just follows - assumed free time to make their lives more complicated - but lots of village societies never done that and foragers have more free time. Environment - wherever people had need to irrigate, you get increased social complexity because irrigation is lots of work - need to coordinate - not necessarily case - Hohokum - extensive irrigation system, no monuments - remained egalitarien. Sometimes rise of state is exception. Population pressure, someone needs to ensure production is keeping up. Conflict - ample resources - don't need to organize that well. People know how to limit fertility. Maybe once settled, people have to start fighting over it - can't just move away -> rules. Could be internal - cultural/religious movements. Don't know what factors are. NO ANDEAN. Collaborative archaeology - cosmopolitan. 50 MC. Hominins, hominoid. afarensis, afrcanis etc.

Lecture 19: June 16, 2017

Cultural Anthropology

Cultural anthropology - Cultural in North america, if britsh - social anth. Europeans - ethnology. Both - sociocultural. Sets of learned behaviours that people acquire as a society. Most anthropologists specialize in one thing or another - geographic and a topic focus (gender and sexuality). Closest to sociology. Back then - sociologist study civilized, anth study savages. But now they study all. Difference is about methods - data is collectd in an extended period of fieldwork (a year), live in culture of the people - participant observation - participating in the hculture and observing it. Similarities with historians - out there in archives, consulting primary sources. While in field, anth speaking to informants - tell them about their culture - interviews - formal or informal. Come back, going to write an ethnography - a description of a way of life of a particular group of people. Ethnology - comparison of different cultures.

Lots of definitions of culture. 1st to define - Sir EB Tylor - first academic anthropologist in the world - 1860 - that complex whole which includes knowledge, believe, art, law, morals, and other capabilities acquired by a man as a member society. Back then - culture meant goign to the opera, reading shakespeare. Culture makes us unique. We're more dependent on culture than any other species. HUmans born with little survival instincts - need culture to get by. Use culture to construct our niches. Childhood of humans is so long. We should be adult size at 8 or 9.

Use culture to explain why people behave the way they do. But it doesn't determine what they do. In this culture, people who identify as men don't wear skirts and dresses. In other societies, they do. In North America, trained in biology so we know how biology and culture interact. Culture wouldn't exist if we weren't biologically capable. If we didn't have culture, we wouldn't exist.

Learning culture - we have to learn it from other people. Partially trial and error - but don't get to try everything. Other members guide the exploration of children - don't let children play with knives/fire. Learning is shaped socially, culturally.

##Socialization## - how you act. learning how to act properly. How to learn how to live as a member of group. How do you interact properly with others. How to share, say thank you, how to not throw tantrums.

##Enculturation## - how to think and feel appropriately. Appropriate things to think about. Private property - difficult to think about it if it didn't exist. We have a normal - hard to think outside it.

We tell children things. Talking. Other cultures do things differently. Balinese dancing - have to do everything a particular way. No interpretation. Instructors will physically mold your body. It's shared, learned. A lot of it is explicitly taught, but most is absorbed implicitly. Habitus - implies a lot of the things we do that no one ever taught us. No onet aught you to walk the way you walk. How you pick things up. The way you do things without thinking about it.

Characteristics of culture

Culture is not an end product. It's a slow accumulation of traits. Adaptive feedback. Altered environments, made btter and better niches - niches favoured more complex thought, created more and mroe complex social institutions, material structures.

Critique and Response - Become more contraversial. Initially, culture was progressive. Became opposed to the word civilization. Anth tradition - rejected victorian ideals - inherited word culture. Can't call people savages. Now can be used as a prison to keep people the way they are and not let them change. When someone belongs to another culture, they're in an ethnic group - act as if they are a museum - they can't change. When a native group, Makah, they got permission to resume whale hunts - central to their culture - once a year - seen as a victory but they used firearms. People expected them to use bone harpoons. "This hunt is not traditional." People have always used the best technology everywhere. Indigenous have been using guns to hunt for a long time. We tend to think that we have a monopoly on change. NA hunters use guns, but gun powder is Chinese invention. We are not authentic as well.

Culture - alternative to racist bigots. Used in opposite way. Partay. Africa - separated into cultural groups (racial). White, Asians, African. Not allowed to have sex, marry with other group. Government used idea of culture to keep people separate. Black people kept on reserves - could not live in cities. South Africa - didn't care about local culture - they're different so they should be separate from us. Lots of oppressed groups.

Challenge of Cultural Differences. Every day you have to make thousands of interpretations. All kinds of misunderstandings - someone sends you a text - angry or sarcastic - they didn't put an emoji at the end. Standinf in front of you and blinked/twitch but you thought they were winking at you. Cross-cultural encounters - lots of possibilities for misunderstanding. People have to figure out how they respond to other cultures. ##Ethnocentrism## - assume the way I do tihngs is the right way - if someone isn't doing it that wya, they're doing it wrong. Alberta - sideways traffic lights - why can't they look like normal traffic lights? Judgement. ##Cultural Relativism## - understand cultures on their own terms. People aren't different because they're stupid, they just do it differently.
Other cultures try to do something about it - convert. War, genocide.

Communication is possible. Threatening and liberating that other people do things differently. I don't have to do it that way or they mus thtink i'm dumb. Ethnocentrism is unavoidable. Otherwise, you'd be questioning every single cultural practice you do. Wouldn't be able to brush your teeth "What is the meaning of toothpaste and why do I have to brush my teeth anyway?" Cultural Relativism - promote understadning of unfamiliar cultural practices. Morally relative - well hey, anything goes. If studying holocaust - product of german culture so ok (no), how did antisemitism/nationalism become rooted in german culture in 1940s? Cultural Determinism - if you assume culture determines behaviour. Can't assume that people are brainwashed. Persecution and murdered can be made to seem to be perfectly acceptable - doesn't make it okay, but it can be made to seem okay. It does not excuse people of murder. If you understand something, it doesn't necessarily mean we approve it. Makes your reasoning more complex - moral decisions are better informed becaus eyou'll consider other alternatives.

Lecture 20: June 19, 2017

We need time. Human condition rooted in time. Shaped by history. Engaged in speculative history (19th century anthropology) - ##racist conjectural history##.

20th century - 2nd generation of anthropologists - stayed away from notions of time. Rejected history. No time element. Clockwork. Describe societies as if nothing changed in some equilibirium.

Contemporary anthropologists - 1960s. Look at time again. Our behaviour isn't determined by everything. We have free will, agency outside of culture and biology. We don't have free will 100%. Can't decide I'm going to fly - biology. Can't buy an island but not enough money - culture. Karl Marx - men make their own s but they do not make it just as they please. they do not make it under... past. I make my own history, but I can't start from tabular rasa - starting from a place with racism, sexism, etc.

The Anthropological perspective - encounter other ways of thinking. Exposing people to other ways of thinking. Make you question your own beliefs. Rewarding. Hard to go back. Understanding becomes richer.

Linguistic anthropology

Nonverbal communication - suspect that neandertals could also talk. Don't know or think other hominins could talk. Primates communicate, but do not have language. We can teach them some sign language. Apes and monkeys - sounds and gestures to communicate. We do this too. Can tell a lot - age, gender (voices), emotional state. A lot of data that we communicate is not communicated via language. 90% of all information about emotion is communicated non-verbally. The most basic of body language is universal (laughing, crying). Basic building blocks of gesture call system - not easy to fake. With language, we can deceive. Smiling - eyes are smiling, more muscles. more stuff going on. Lips move up, crinkledflaring nose, crinkled eyes.

Gesture part - Kinesics - Body language. Posture. FAcial expressions. Bodily motions. Some universal, some not. Some of these things are cultural and some we do without realizing it. When we are not sure when someone is male or female - we don't know what to do - interact differently w members with our own gender vs opposite gender. Get uncomfortable. We are all communicating about gender all the time. Sit like a woman, sit like a man. Men - sit back, broader shoulders, confidence - occupying more space, open, approachable. Women - straight, hands in, legs crossed, closed, proper, "don't touch me", "get away from me", protecting. Carry books differently - defensive vs. open.

Proxemics- study of how people use space to communicate. We all know when our space have been violated. But different cultures have different norms for space. NA - very consistent - anybody who is touching or within 18 inches on regular basis is a family member or close friend or lover - intimate space. 1.5 ft to 4 ft - personal space - good friend. 4ft-12ft - acquantances (cocktail party space). 12-25ft public space. Some people don't have the same social sets - a little bit off all of the time. Other people from dif cultures. Seinfeld close talkerSocial space is smaller among meditarranean cultures - Italian chasing you around. Cross-cultural miscommunication.

Language

Arbiitrary system of vocal symbols. The words that we use have no relation to the concept we use them to denote. We use to encode our experiences in the world. Double edged sword - allows people to communicate but is a barrier to communication (gone somewhere where you don't speak the same language), have to fall back on gestures. 3k languages - there used to be a lot more. Most people in the world speak more than one language. Many speak several. Biocultural phenomena - if our brain didn't work that way, we couldnt use language. If our vocal cords didn't work that way, we couldnt use spoken language. Cultural product. They're shared, patterned, symbolic, transitted by learning and teaching. Linguistics - scientific study of language.

Anthropological languages - simply as a means of ocmmunicating in the field. Studying language for what it reveals of the culture of th epeople who speak it. Can study in a variety of ways - recorded text, speech. Learn language and learn culture. Language is not speech. No speech, but still producing language. Could use sign language, morse code, no speech. Language not the same thing as communication - we communicate stuff without language. Requires more than just the words. You can not just translate one language to another word for word (idioms).

English - borrow words from other languages. Pyjamas - india. Other languages don't. French - rules about the language. "Computer" - Malui - Computah. French makes a word for it. Schadenfreude. Word for the thing you should have said 3 hours later. Language attempts to express our experience.

Imara - potatoes - 100 dif words. We have a militiristic culture - war-derived - "I'm fighting my temptation to eat that cupcake" "War on drugs" "I made a killing on my investments" "I could shoot you down" "I totally bombed that" One language can be different from another. All languages are equally complex. Language easy if closer to your own. Desire to standardize language vs. desire to use language to create unique expressions. "Cloud". Languages are always changing and evolving. No 1 to 1 correspondence.

Lecture 21: June 21, 2017

Charles pocket. 16 that are unique

Patterning - paterned for sound and meaning. All spoken languages are composed of ##phonemes##. MAke use of combinations of phonemes. Basic unit of a distincy sound that come together to form words. On their own, they have no meaning. boy. 2 phonemes. b and oy. don't mean anything on their ownLanguages composed of ##morphemes## - smallest units of meaning in a language. Boys - 2 morphemes. Boy and s. Boy and plural. 1 word, 2 morphemes. Boyfriend.

2 kinds of competence - Linguistic and Communicative. Linguistic competence - learning in classroom. Can say all the things but say worng whtings in wrong context. If learning as a child, pick up both competences. "I went to store and buyed some popsicles". Make mistakes but still communicate very well. Communicative competence - produce utterances that make sense linguisticly but also appropriate to context. May make a mistake but say it at the right time and in right way. "Thank you for coming" Mastery of adult rules for socially/culturally appropriate speech. What to say, when to say, and how to say it. Times when appropriate to be blunt, times when not. "Does this outfit make me look fat" - always no. If you didn't say no, wouldnt be communicatively competent. Language is really connected to conext. tu and vous. both can mean "you". Depends on context. tu/vous is different in quebec vs in france. quebecois is more informal. Javanese - formal and informal pronouns. Formal and informal verbs and nouns. If you use formal, change verb and noun. Different ways of doing whether youre man or woman and who youre speaking to is man or woman.

Linguistic Relativity. 20th century - noticed people from dif languages describe a situation in dif ways. ##Linguistic Relativity hypothesis## - Benjamin Whorf and Edward Sapir. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Language shapes the way you experience the world. Not just the tool for describing experiences. Affects how you perceive/experience things. Difficult to test. Whorf was insurance claim guy - go around to accidents and assess whether they were eligible for insurance. One accidents - fire, empty gasoline drums exploded. Security guard was smoking. Because "empty" he flicked into drum but still had vapours. Did something stupid because of "empty" meaning harmless. If we had a better word, he wouldn't have done that stupid thing - he knew it had gasoline. Now use "Flammable". Other languages would have used different words. How do you prove it? Study - Sweds have lower on the job accidents than Finland. Similar kinds of laws. Difference is that they speak dif languages. Swedish is indoeuropean like english/french - movement through 3D space very well. Finnish - euroaltaic - more static - less easy to convey movement in 3D space - can't think/convey processes easily. People are making accidents because being too hasty. Strongest view: ##Linguistic determinism## - language determines experiences. This is what linguists assumed, but they can't be the case. We can translate one language to another. Lots of languages with gender pronons and lots that don't. No gender pronouns doesnt mean egalitarian w gender. Alternate ways of expressing things -> alternate ways of experiencing things. Most people in world speak more than one language - don't have 2 personalities. Weaker: langguage shapes experience.

##Euphemism## - something we say because more polite version of something. I am so sorry for your loss. "I am really sorry that your aunt died" - could say this but stark. It's less harsh/real. Dysphemism - way of putting things less polite. I'm sorry your aunt kicked the bucket. Somebody died vs. passed away vs. bought the farm. Context determines what I say. "I am going to the bathroom" - we all know what we're doing in there -makes us feel more comfortable.

Doublespeak - euphemism in bad faith. People are saying things to you that are trying to manipulate the way you think of things. Govnments and military. "Negative patient care outcome" - somebody died. "Collateral damage" - people that we killed weren't our targets. "Friendly fire" - shoot your own allies. "Biosolids" - feces. "Enhanced interrogation" - torture. "Ethnic cleansing" - widely known - genocide. "Terrorist" or "Freedom Fighter" - depends on outlook. "Preemptive strike" - unprovoked attack. Language influences the way you feel about things. You don't feel the same way about collateral damage. Deliverately conceal truth. Comes from 1984 book.

##PRagmatics## Linguist context - what are the things happening around this. "I really enjoyed it" - don't know unless got context from language. Non-linguistic context - Who's that over there? HAve to look over there. Pragmatics - how context influences meaning, focused on discourse - any speech longer than a sentence. Grammar is sentence-based. Pragmatics - longer stretches of speech. Dialogue - formal pragmatics. Cultural context - ##Ethnopragmatics## - study of how language is used in a particular culture. communication ,cultural norms, social itneraction. Everything is just resources. Rules governing - just navigate through rules. Sometimes can have mutual understanding when don't speak language - same experience, roll eyes. Share level expertise. Rely on language. Heteroglocia - consequence of linguistic openness - even if you speak 1 language, you know loads of dif linguistic practices. Yu don't speak the same way when you speak to boy or girl or grandma or professors - rules of using language. Context includes understanding social relationships.

Lecture 22: June X, 2017

Pidgins and Creoles. 2 groups of pepole come into contact and don't have a language in common. A new form of language called a ##Pidgin## develops - quickly and not like either language. Involves negotiation. Colonial or commercial dominaiton. Dominant group - words? and subordinate group - grammar and syntax. Becomes much simplified. Drop shit. Don't have any native speakers. Span a single generation. The language becomes a creole once more native speakers. When pidgin becomes creolized, it becomes more complicated. Things dropped come back. Creoles become conventional languages. English. Normans came. British and French didn't speak anything in common - Pidgin. A lot of french vocab is english. Structure/grammar was Germanic. Was pidgin, passed down. French was dominant. Words for food. Animals in field - cow. On plate - beef. Fancy words are french. A creole will just spring up where a pidgin didn't exist. Pidgins can remain pidgins forever - may never get native speakers. Pidgins can be mroe complex. Can get all 3 coexisting. Pidgin - shared secondary language - noone's mother tongue. Creole - main language in community. Pidgin speakers - have to use pidgin for social activities -> creole. People don't want to learn one another's language -> Pidgin.

When a pidgin or creole continues to coexist with language of dominant group. Dominant sees pidgin and creole as inferior. Colonies - see it as a broken down version of their language. Will insist in offering education only in their language. People don't get to participate in their government. Linguistic ethnocentrism - can happen to any variant of language - accents - looking down on regional accents. Canada - make fun. African american english - Ebonics - Black english - 1960s - psychologists - urban AA - "suffering from linguistic deprevation" - sociolinguists conducted own research - not a defective pseudo language - once changed context of research - classroom: AA students were schooled by white subjects that had no interest to them, said very little, didnt want teachers to know anything about them. Sociolinguists - houses, streets - children who had nothing to say inside classroom had plenty to say ouside. Different variant, different rules. Heterglaucia. psychologists: children were too stupid to learn or too poverty. Sociolinguists - AA males in urban context., but not the form of english spoken by all african americans. AA culture is not homogeneous. People who did not speak that way resented implications. Heterogaluce in speech community - gender, age, class, education level. People in AA community go back and forth between standard and AA english depending on context. A lot of middle/upper class AA kids don't speak ebonics, but may adopt it in college/university. Everyone else also adopts because it's cool.

In Canada, first nations people hav estruggled to maintain. A lot are extinct becaue of colonialism. Colonial settlers thought FN languages were inferior. Took children out of homes to have thier language beaten out of them - beaten. Perceptions of language to speakers - ##Language ideology## - assumptions about people who speak that language - how features of languagerelate to a feature of its society/speakers.

Language habits diff between regions, social classes, age, etc. Also gender. Deborah Tannen - studyes diff in speech patterns between men and women and what are the misunderstandings that come from differences. Male/female interactions. Thousands of hours of tape. Men and women in English tend to use language for different purposes. Public: men are more competitive. Private: women use language to foster closeness. Differnet goals. Women: harmonizing, closeness, relationships. Men: competition. Not universal. Problem: when men and women assume that the other gender is using language w same rules. Man comes home after work - just wants to rest, wife comes home after work - wants to reestablish closeness - lets talk. The man is perceiving attempts as needling an dnagging. Wife perceives as coldness. When men and women tlak to each other: women say sorry more, men interrupt more, women use tag questions more - Taht was a great movie, wasnt it? Men: "that was a great movie". Women try to keep the relationship rolling.

Focus on Four Fields: Ethnographic Methods

How cultural anthropologist conduct their work.

First they do ##fieldwork##. In canth, it's ##ethnographic fieldwork##. An odd proposal from the studied people. Anth come, study, leave. Anth returns home as a changed person. Hosts get to stay at home but have to live with anth and then gone. Anth have an ethical responibility to host society if you did a disservice to the people who hosted you. Usually not spies. Very careful of how they share information. May not reveal names. Drug dealers, biker gangs, Terrorist troupes, freedom fighters, dictatorships.

Lecture 23: June 26, 2017

Fieldwork somewhere else. In the past, always worked abroad - colonial legacy. Go out to places where they had colonies. Anthropologists would study indigenous people because no colonies. British - India, Africa, wherever there were english colonies. Draws attnetion to places that have been traditionally marginalized. Study at home, you already have insight - easier process, no need for visa. Both draw on participant observation.

Affects on informants - difficult to predict - temporary or linger. Grad school - field school. Zambia. Remote village. 11 of them. massive impact on local market - things popped up in the market based on what peole knew about white people. 2 things - bread and toilet paper. People just used torn up paper. Kid - carved stuff for them. Started selling at 60 cents and then went up to $1. By the end, he signed his work. Art is political. Radio here - songs are about falling in love, getting dumped, friday night. There, few love songs. About politics, corruption, aids. Probably hAd to stop selling bread, toilet paper. Tragic: Dubois 1930s. Positive relationship with informants. WW2 broke out. Annexed by Japan. Positive feelings about America. Many jailed/killed because of positive feelings. Unpredictable. Forcing people to think about their lives. Most people don't think about it. Elderly informants - thanked her for making them think about how they did things. Enjoyed but made them bitter. Focused on problems of today's society and what was wrong with young people. People who are your key informants. Translators. Temporary increase in wealth because you're paying them. Anthropologists leave a lot of things behind - gift away all possessions. Existensial - talk about your life, then they're not there -> hole.

What do the anthropolgists feel? Culture shock and then reverse culture shock. Can be overwhelming. Tourists can also get culture shock - anyone travelling around. When you're in a new environment and you can't adjust fast enough. Panic. Some people get angry (why is it so stupid here?) or disoriented. Unanticipated. New anthropologists expect it but still won't anticipate it. Cock fighting. People ignored him. Police raid. All ghosting him. As soon as he ran away from police, he became one of them. Bonding experience. Can come out of everywhere anytime - expecting it, relax, then it sets in. Mini buses - high fatality rate. Dried fish. Baby with bubbly lungs. Crying woman. Sick woman. Constant worry that you're not good as a researcher. girl's initiation. Funny. Dancing. Unexpectedly amazing experiences.

Reverse culture shock. Tunnel vision - wrapping stuff up. Looking forward to going home. Then when you go home, it will be strange. Disoriented. Everything familiar, but unfamiliar. Overhwlmed by amount of stuff, consumer items.

Chiraszulu Mountain, Malawi. Overcrowded. No privacy. Exhausted soil. Heavily deforested. High status house - tin roof. Roof full of holes. Missing windows. Rat in couch. Headmin - translator and host. Chameleons. Monkeys. Spiders - as big as hand. Big spiders don't like to come inside.

Fieldwork. A dialectic - build a bridge of understanding between anthropologist and informant. Risk misunderstanding everything that you see and offending people. Have to be turned on all of the time - observant. Cross-legged woman - have to pick up on that and then alter the way you're sitting. No one tells you - everyone wants to be polite. Paul and Beatrice. Ready to get married. HAd to go to uncles. Different tribes. Matrilineal vs. Patrilineal. Paul and Beatrice loved each other but the Unlces did not love eahc other. Couldn't get married. Paul - just gave up. For him, to have legitimate marriage, uncles have to agree. If you don't have that, marriage isnt really a marriage. In NA, don't need permission. A year+, uncles came around. Named first child Patience. Intersubjectively. Objective vs. subjective. Intersubjective - knowledge arrived at by a bunch of people. Majority of people agreeing - mutually coming to an understanding of what's going on. The longer you stay and tlak to people, the more overlap there is of understanding. Point of overlap - try to come up with intersubjectve knowledge. Both parties are partners. Translating one world view to another. Gain skill in forming questions. Informants gain skill in explaining. Dialogue is usually nitiated and ended by anthropologist. Power imbalance - anthrop is more in control. Sometimes informants want to be known. Writing autobiographies for informants - acting as translator.

Lecture 24: June 28, 2017

Power differential - not always. If biography of CEO, other way around. Anthropologists are more educated/privileged in comparision to people they're working with. Has to be ethical and accountable for their data. Frequently become involved as activists - translators and advisors.

Examples from the field. Sometimes have hard time fitting in - and communication breaks down. Jean Briggs - Utku (Nunavut). Ethnography - never in anger. Her constant struggle with her own self when she was trying to do fieldwork. Grew up american - accustomed to open displays of emotion/aggression. Utku - harmonious/happy temperament, frowned on open displays of strong emotion (anger). She struggled for months to learn how to be appropriate. She came to feel protective of them with tourist white fisherman groups encounters. Borrowed canoe, broke. School boy mistranslated - thought she was telling tourists false stories. They ostracized her for months. Wrote letter to friend, friend wrote letter to Utku. Sometmes anthropologists can repress their true selves to please the people - problem. If acting as informant is always right - problems. Paul Rabinow - Morocco. Go to wedding - last min - got sick, still went but wanted to leave early. His informant stayed late. Informant kept pushing him to say he was angry. Get out of my car - thought he did something wrong. Informant treated him with newfound respect. When men are together, they test one another's limits deliberately - to give in is weak and pathetic - when stood up for himself, established bettter relationship. Seemed bad, but can lead to better relationship in the end.

Multi-sited Fieldwork - process-based. I'm studying some kind of process - no boundaries. Following process instead of site. Global outlaws - global crime. Globalized world. Studying one place, need to study other places to see how they fit in the world. Have to look outside. Things we wanna study are not contained in one place anymore. Complex issues - people, things (product), plot (group of transnational migrants). Limitations: th emore sites you have the more thinly spread out you are. The less intense relationship you have. No primary group (no political relationship). Benefits: usually one primary site. Data from Variety of dif sites. Complex. The world is changing.

The effects of fieldwork - on those being studied: code of ethics to do no harm. on the researcher: culture shock, lives, friendships, learning things, furthering career. On humanity: product of reflexively. Helps us to answer questions about human nature, society, history. Good ethnography - gives people to experience others. Doesn't make them exotic.

how do we make meaning?

Play: open activity. Gives people ability to think about things, talk about things, and to act in regard to things in different ways. Play is a framing that is consciously adopted by the players. Somewhat pleasurable and systematically related to non-play. All mammals do. Trains young mammals in activities that they'll need when they're older - fighting, etc. Humans just want to keep playing. Develop motor skills, helps cognitive development (try again), repair developmental damage cause by trauma. Let's parents/siblings know that the mammal is doing well.

Related to non-play. Whatever you're doing on your ocmputer, stop that. Have to move to play. Players have to know that other players are not being serious. Out on date and other person doesn't know that it's a date - messed up. Oh, we're playing football and you didn't just attack me. Metacommunication - communcation about communcation. Framing - set a boundary between play and non-play - lets you know that everything i do after this is not part of everyday life - wink - say something outrageous - joke. "Kids, let's pretend". Referee blows whissell, play begins, puck drops. Reeflexivity - reflecting on our own experience - understood in more than one way - commentary on ordinary life - alternatives to what we are experience - satire.

Effects of play -

Art: Playing with form. Art is play with form producing an aesthetically successful transformation-representation. Rules. Certain kinds of forms that are appropriate. Appropriate - culturally determined. Form - made up of style. Made up of media - painting, sculpture. Culturally recognized schema - impressionist, etc - appropriate to a medium - painting. Painting is a form - 2D, paint. Aesthitically successful - it invokes a response - positive or negative. As oscar wilde said, the only thing worse than being talked about is not being talked about. Culturally influenced - culture teaches people to recognize what art is suppsoed to look like.

Transformation-Representation. Artists are trying to represented. Subject has to be transformed. HAve to make it into something representable. 3D to 2D. Depends on the skill of artist. Like metaphors - a drawing is a metaphor for transformation of experience of a visible marks on a surface. Could do the same with a poem. Poem metaphorically transforms an experience into a special kind of language that concentrates that experience so the reader gets it.

Is it art? Velvet Elvis. Not art. We have an art esstablishment - not art, but craft. Doesn't further art theory. Doesn't express anything new. Distinction is not universal. Folk art. In culture, considered true art. We think of artists as counter cultural. Other cultures- ceremonial art - part of social order. Producers may not be fond of their own art. Some things are not considered as art. Baskets. Museums - initially intended as furniture/clothing/utensils/coffins. Someone in authority decided that it's art - put in museum. Art by intent vs. art by appropriation (anythng that becomes art after creation - usually someone other than artist). To become art, it has to have exhibition value. Art is portable (move around), durable (last), useless, representation. Venus dimilo is art. Colloseium is not art. Art is like play - presents audience with alternative reality and offers a means of commenting on the world. Artists are no longer making for benefit of self/communities - for benefit of tourists and art collectors. Ethnic art - good price. Most is tourist or folk art. Artists are threatened by international policies.

Myth: open - disadvantages. Play can undermine social order. Artists are governed more by rules - also challenge moral and social order. All societies depend on their members not to critique certain assumptions about the way the world works. Society collapses if people are free to act/imagine all the dif things. Persaude people that local version of reality is the local/best reality. Myth - stories that present truths to people. Made to seem self-evident. Integreate people's personal expereinces with a wider set of assumptions about how the world works. Seamlessly. Stories about the sacred (often). And how did things begin/end. Validate power relations. Hindu mythology - Cast system - hierarchy - explains it. Myths are performances. Teller and audience. Teller are ppl in power - politicians, elders, religious specialists. Where they came from, where they should be going, how they should be living their lives. How much freedom they are allowed to question core myths. Complex society in Canada - lots exist that contradictory becauee freedom of conscious is guaranteed by a myth. If deviation - it's an orthodox society - everything is layed out you have to follow it. Vary in how much they want members to be orthodox. Myths influence action. To be plausible. Myths have to convincingly make life meaningful. Multiculturalism, freedom of conscinece. Secular and scientific and sacred myths.

Lecture 25: June 30, 2017

Bronislaw Malinowski - Polish-born British anthropologists. WW1. Trobriand islands. Pioneered new apparoach to the myth. Believed that myths were charters for contemporary social arrangements. Declaration of independence - self-evident truths of why society is the way that it is. Canada: myth of multiculturalism - self-evident truth about our society - why it's great and why it souldn't be changed - more ideal in value than in practice. Myth can be used as a combat to a challenge. Myths can also change. Just because it's been that way, doesn't mean it can't change. Can change to explain new developments. Society was matrilineal - at what time in place their ancestral mother and her brother emerged from the soila nd what skills/spells their kinship group is associated with. Justified the matrilineal kinship system. Bilateral - trace descent through both. Ideal pair in patrilineal - father to son. Matrilineal pair - mother and her brother - brother is senior male, not father. Myths justified why some clans ranked higher - they came first. Dog clan > pig clan, but dog clan violated some taboo so pig clan >.

Claude LEvi-Strauss. Believed that myths are tools for overcoming logical contraditions that cannot otherwise be overcome. Binary oppositions - life and death, men and women, nature and culture, day and night, light and dark. Oppose them to one another to overcome the contradiction. Life + death - mythic heroes who travel to afterlife and back. Heroes that die and are resurrected. Orpheus. Ancient Greek - myth if you don't die. This is why it has to be this way. What the world is, what might the world be like? Propose alternatives to the way things are, but alternatives rejected as impossible.

Ritual - a lot of things have rituals associated with them. Repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activties. Can take a variety of forms. Set apart from regular routines in life. It adheres to a culturally-defined ritual schema - blueprint that tells us how it should be done. Can be secular. Linked to specific ideas. Very powerful. PEople who perform assert that they have authority to do the ritual - god, tradition, state, ancestors. Children's birthday party. Always kind of the same. Parents get kids dressed up. Drop them off. Kid brings a wrapped gift. Party hats. Play games - you will only see at a party. Birthday cake - candle = age. Silent wish, cannot tell anyone. Open presents. Loot bags. Never told how birthday parties work - it's tradition. We learn: exchanging material objects is an important way of cementing relationships. Delayed gratification: cannot open presents immediately. Individual is paramount: everything revolves around kid, but there are social rules - have to say thank you, have to be a good host.

Rites of Passage (ritual) - Belgian anthropologist - Van Gennep. Certain kind of rituals were found all over the world - transitioning - same structure. One status to another. 3 stages: Separation - individual leave behind all the symbols of previous status and separated from everyone else (initiation). 2. Transition - betwixed/between, not yet taken up new status, inbetween, different set of symbols, dangerous state, ambigious. 3. REagrigation/reincorporation - end of ritual, new status, reincorporated into society, display of new status. Bride/groom transitioning from being married to not married. Separated from erryone else on wedding day. Groom in front. Bride hidden. Special dress. Ceremony. If someone objects - everyone's in limbo - really bad - risky. Now pronounce you husband and wife - reincorporated in new identity. Joining military - all recruits separated, leave behind identity, hair, in transition. Perceived danger - hazing, strenuous training, trust exercises. Graduation, marches, applauds. Have to wear uniform.

Van Gennep's work was in French. Someone 1960s - interested in transitional phase - Liminal period - threshold. Turner - symbolism. Ambiguity. Initiates who go through phase together (new recruits) - intense sense of comradeship that never leaves them - doesnt matter previous social distinctions before. Everyone is at the same level. They become brothers/sisters. ##Communitas## - sense of intense comradeship - in opposition to the rest of society - antistructure - all hierarchy goes out the window, all the same, all one. Need antistructure just as much as structure. Bond of common humanity - reminds us why we bother to have society. Why utopian societies don't wark. Remind us of common bond. There, but brief. IF persisted, no one would get anything done.

How do we decide to give our lives meaning? Depends on ##World view##. - an encompassing picture of reality created by the members of society. Cultures are patterned and individuals aren't isolated. Shared assumptions about how the world works. Symbols and symbolism - create symbols to remind themselves about significant expriences. ##Summarizing symbol## - US Flag - mom, apple pie, 4th of july. For others - imperialism, donald trump, capitalism. Summarizes an entire semantic domain - America. Invites consideration of all elements within it. The cross, the swastika. See it, think about a lot of things. ##Elaborating symbol## - allows people to elaborate on their experience in 1 element. Among the dinka (cattle-herding society) - cattle as a symbol. All expressions of colour/light/shade in Dinka is based on cow. Entire vocabulary based on cattle.

Most fmailiar worldview: religion. A world view that postulates relaity beyond that whchs is available to the senses. There is a reality that I can't know with my senses. Most people don't get to have their own religion. If they do, it's a cult. Religion is social - large group of people. Beliefs and practices shapes interaction with group, others, world. Lots of practices - about what you do, not just what you believe. Prayer - way of addressing a personified cosmic force - speaking, in head, or chanting, may need special equipment (incense), in location, physiological exercise (manipulating psychological state - trance - induce ecstatic spritual state - singing/drumming, drugs, sensory depravation, fasting, pain). Exhortation - some have closeer relationship with cosmic forces. Mana - impersonal superhuman power that is thought to be transferable from one object/person to another. If I touch the ancient well of magic, I get powers. Touching a holy relic. Hawaiian word - hawaiian cheifs had mana. Taboo - not being allowed to touch/do something. Feasting - eating/drinking in religious context, communion, passover, paiote consumption (mexico). SAcrifice - giving valued something to cosmic forces or agents. For lent.

Religious expereinces communciated through metaphor. Language is full of familiar metaphors so people would understand. The lord is my shepherd - they were animal herders. Use social metaphors to get insight into how the world works. A lot of religions use social metaphors to explain how cosmos work. Different social structures hav dif religious beliefs. Small-scale where kinship is main organisation - universe is powered by powerful ancestors. Complex bureaucracies - unvierse is run by a hierarchy of gods with one god running them - Zeus. They have to make sense. Organic metaphors - based on natural things. Fang of gabon - heart is a metaphor for entire religion - heart is organ that is most alive, seat of all thought, fertility. In west, technological metaphors - Renee Descartes - the body was a machine inhabited by a soul.

Lecture 26: July 5, 2017

Religous organisation: Tend to personify invisible powers. If you want to infuence these forces, you have to approach them as if they were human - talk to them. To communicate with cosmic forces, have to figure out who gets to do it and how to do it. How do we know if they've heard us? Communicating with invisible things is not easy. Most societies have specialists that do this. Institutionalized religion -> insitutionalist specialists - shamans (part-time) and priests (full-time, any religion). Shama - part-time religious practitioner - have the power to travel to/be able to communicate with forces. Travel through trance/dream. Trying to communicate with forces to intercede on behalf of humans. Long path to become shaman and it's permanent. Involves drugs. Usually some method used to fall into a trance - drumming, sleep/food depravation, psychtropic drugs. Powerful. People regard them with ambivalence. Don't want to be enemies with them. Position is not undertaken lightly. No choice - selected to be shaman by cosmic forces - marked out by some trauma that they have survived.
Priest - religious practioner who has skills in performing religious rituals. Carry them out for the benefit of the group. Don't necessarily have a direct link with the divine. Don't have a personal line. Do know how to organise a ritual. In hierarchical societies. Hierarchy of religious individuals. Shinto priests.

Example of a world view. Azande Witchcraft. 1930s40s. Azande believe in witchcraft. Innate ability among certain people. Inherited in unilinear fashion - mother was witch and woman or father was witch and man, you are a witch. Possible to be a witch without knowing it. They don't worry about if people are witches. Only if someone seems to be embroiled in a lot of witchcraft. Witchcraft accusations follow ptterns of ill-will. If you are suffering in some way, you're going to look at your enemies and which is a witch. Has to be unexplainable events -> bewitched. Witchcraft explains unfortunate events. WE say it's "bad luck", "coincidence". Azande: "witchcraft." Sit under stilted Granery, termites, get crushed. Get that termites ate it, but who sent the termites? Why was this particular person under it at htat time. 1st spear - brings animal down. 2nd spear - kills. 2nd spear - witchcraft. Witchcaft is not blamed for results of laziness, incometence, or broke taboos.

How should you respond to witchcrafT? Figure out who the witch is. Consult an oracle. Highest level: chicken oracle - ask the chicken a question - if joe is guilty, let the chicken die. Poison oracle - 50% fatal poison - poison chicken. Ask question other way: if joe is guilty, let 2nd chicken survive.
then go and confront them. cut wing off chicken, send someone to take it there. if you have bad feelings for X, hoping you will stop. Person says it was unintentional/not a witch. Ritual with chicken wing - water and blow it across chicken wing. If uncle dies, work vengeance magic.

Witches are your enemies. Enemies are your social equals. Never accuse children. Children may cause small problems. Older people have more experience. Very respectful of elders. Looking at people you deal with all the time. Antisocial people. People accused are the angry, quarrelsome people. PEople don't want to be angry/spiteful because they'll get a bad reputation. PEople give gifts to enemies.

Coping with Change - changes in world view can happen. Have to relate to everyday experiences ina society or they won't be accepted. Stable, repetitive experiences that happen repeatedly support worldviews. When societies become unstable/unpredictable, people have to come up with new interpretations. Sometimes you get it when two religious groups come together and merge - ##Syncretism##. Brasil, Carribbean, etc. - Slave populations in indigenous population. Africans from different religous backgrounds - overlapping beliefs - could not practice - they identified catholic saints with african gods so they developed religious practices that looked like catholicism on the surface. Ways of resistance. Sometimes people in power may incorporate local beliefs into their system to make them more pallable. Christianity - Easter, Yule - Pagan - worked into christian narrative. Romans - conquer - absorb local gods/goddesses. ##Revitalization## - deliberate organized attempt by some members of society to create a more satisfying culture. Get it in times of crisis (colonial type situations). Sometimes embraces syncretism.

Ghost dance - 19th century. Buffalo exterminated, but Great Plains ppl depended. Herded onto reserves by the federal govt. Levoga profit - said world was in its last days (millernaiism), after world destroyed, new crust would form on earth, all settlers will be buried, but pure lives of Great Plains that danced the ghost dance will be saved and live on in happiness. US Army thought it was an uprising. Massacre at Wounded Knee - all troopers killed all Lakota people - mainly women and children and unarmed men.

World views are instruments of power. Some are more "official". All world views have to make sense of peoples reality. Sometimes less credible world views take precendence because they're backed by powerful people. WClimate change is not real - not credible. In US, climate change is not real is more accepted because powerful people are backing it. If backed by dominant members of society and others are censored, then it's an ideology - this is the way it has to be. Karl Marx - believed that rulers can power by persuading people to accept a worldview in which their own domination is legitimate - its ok to be dominated by powerful people. They can resist/reject worldviews. Metaphors are important - used as instruments of power/control - they refer to self-evident truths. If you take an oath, youa re reminded that you wil be punished if you lie. Priests/kings - interpretors of religious symbols. If all religous power is in old men, women and children find it hard to resist.

Economics

To survive, we have to make use of resources. Up to us to use/distribute/consume resources. Branch of anthroopology deals with this. Issues of human nature that are related to making a living.

Capitalist societies - focus on exchagne/disturbution. Karl Marx: can't understand distribution unless you understand production because it determines the context of the exchange. Some anthr: consumption is the thing - consider consumption priorities. Other people - all of it is secondary - everything is at the mercy of storage - cant have everything - where would you put it?

Lecture 27 July 7, 2017

Economics - industrial captilaism. Factories. Cities. Neoclassical economic theory (Adam Smith) - how does capitalism work? Feudalism - People just get different amounts of goods based on their status (everybody knows their place, nonnegotiable). Capitalist modes - free distribution - not bound by traditions. Bound by marketplace -everyboyd has someothing to buy, and sell. No restrictions on who should get what - price fluctuates depending on supply and demand. Price the market is willing to bear. This is NCT. Can be applied to other societies as welll. Market forces are the determining forces for production and consumption. Focus is on market/distributive and that drives production/consumption. Works welll in our society but not other kinds of societies.

Very materialistic model, self-centered. Ethnocentric. Capitalist market exchange is only one exchange.

Some anthp see production as being the driving force of the economy. Where it all begins. HAve to be distributed and availability dtermintes consumption. Labour - linking social groups to material world. Humans come together to produce gooods from raw materials. Mental and physical labour. Intelligence. Different groups produce very distinct patterns.

Focused on interelationship between different modes of production and social organisations that go along with tme. How societies functioned. Interrelationship between dif parts of society in a functional sense. How do socities work together to produce social harmony? Can never escape conflict. Marx assumed conflict was inherent. Different modes of productions had dif types of conflict. Capitalist - workers want to be paid more, cpaitalists want to pay them less. Class warfare - not always, but potential is always there. Strike potential is always there. The more complex the relations of production, the greater the inequality is, the more intense struggle is going to be. Kin-ordered egalitarien - conflicts betwen husbands and wives, elders and jrs. Jr - most of the work, elders get all prestige. Tributary - nobility and peasantry. Capitalist - workers and capitalists.

Apply to other areas of life. If production mode is to last, need relationso f production and means surviving. Farmers/herders - mix of food products. Both ensure carries out in future. Ensure children grow up to be farmers/herders (means). relations are also perpetuated. People also produce/reproduce interpretations. ##Ideology## - beliefs that people have that explain productions. Members of ruling class have beliefs that justify their dominations - why are we nobles, capitalists? People are dominated have to ascent to these beliefs (publicly). To survive, have to put up with it. Different modes of production stack the deck in favour of one class over another. Capitalism - people have more acccess to resources. Point out something about working class - lazy or inferior. Everybody has equal opportunity but people dont believe that they do so they dont take it. Probably not accurate. When in dominate class, you believe things. I'm in elevated position because I took all my oppportunities. People in working class - rules of game are set up because not beverybody can win. Hard to get out of cycle. Doesn't work if everybody owns the means of production - that's communism.

Assumed that people consume goods to satisfy needs or based on personal preferences. Ethnologists - differences of pattersn of consumption. Why such differences? Internal explanation (slowamowski) - Social practices ot fulfillment of basic needs - how humans are dependent on environment. Rational attempts to meet their own needs. Not racist. Didn't have a good hypothesis.

External explanation: how environments are divided into dif ecozones, echoniches, ecotones. How species adapted to their ecozones/tones by creating econiches. Applied to humans. How are our patterns of consumption. Julian Steward - approach - tied to environment. Malonowski - grow sweet potatoes and have pigs to satisfy needs. Cultural ecologists - yeah, they have to eat, but they do these things cause they suit their environment. Can't grow wheat in trobian islands, but you can have pigs and sweet potatoes. Both true, but there are plenty of food. But people's preferences are culturally dtermined. Could eat grasshoppers - but Western arent keen on them.

Lecture 28 July 10, 2017

Food storage and sharing. What are the practices of food storing and sharing. The less storage you have, the more sharing you have. If you don't have a good way to store food, you have to share it, otherwise you'll waste it. Good investment for the future - if you share with everyone, then people will share with you. Protection against future problems. The more people have to store in general, the more they'll invest in storage. Hunters - dry meat, cache things, not much storage. Grains - more surplus - have to store - more sedentary. Not necessarily related to any subsistence strategies. The more complex the society, the more complex the storage. Indonesia - graneries - stilts.

Another explanation for consumption: Cultural explanation. Internal - satisfying needs. External - shaped by environment they live in. Both don't look at human agency - active choice. Only look at needs. Modern, industrialized - have luxury of choice. People think hunter gatherers are on the edge of surviva, but not true. Richard Lee - time/calorie studies - the Bushman - year of drought - very varied diet, were able to be picky about what they ate even in a desert, 70% veggie, 30% meat. Women probided 55% of coloric intake. Each adult spent 2.5 hours a day getting food. Rest of the day, did whatever they wanted to. The original affluent society. ##Affluence## - having more than enough. Over 2k calories a day. Our affluence - we produce much more, then try to acquire it. Or to desire less. Foragers are not poor because they have what they want.

Culture shapes our needs. Patterns our way of satisfying our needs. No social exchange occurs between parties unless all parties are able to assess the values of the exchange items. Have to know the value of the things are. Satisfy social needs and communicate culture values. Ideas of what wealth and poverty is. Povery is not an absolute condition based on the sheer number of goods. Relationship. Can't be reduced to biology. Not just ecology. Not just psychology. All goods have meaning - some things are necessities, some thing sare luxuries depending on the person. Must compare them. CAttle herders - only milk, blood. No eat. Social relationships. To be rich is to be well integrated in the society. Lots of cattle to exchange. If you're poor, it means you're socially isolated because you don't have enough cattle. Institutionalized sharing - prevent indivudal accumulation. Prevent people from thinking too highyl of themselves. Bushman - unacceptable to be proud of a big kill. Must be Modest. Both kinds of societies prevent things that try to undercut social relationships. Plains Cree of NA - bison hunters, bands, leader. Leader was to provide everything (redistribution network). Leader was not wealthier. Must be generous to qualify for leader. Bison hunting died out. They still have to be generous. Food, clothing, beer, etc. Want to give away more than they receive. Rude to concentrate giving to 1 person.

Consumption in the Age of Globalization. Shouldn't use Western market to measure what's going on in other societies. Consumption of market commodities is everywhere. Coke is everywhere. Shouldn't assume that people who buy coke there for the same reasons that we do. Indigenous - video technology before everyone - document acitivities of logging/mining in area to protest. Trinidad. Coca cola bottled in local bottling plant. Bbottle, sugar, carbon locally. Also bottle drinks that compete with coke. Export soft drinks throughout Carribean. 2 kinds of drinks that are not rum: Red, sweet drinks and blac,sweet drinks. Purpose is to mix with rum. Coke is 1 of many blakc, sweet drinks. Point is that they're sweet. Resisted attempts to make it less sweet. Red, sweet drinks - Indian population. Black, sweet drinks - African population. African-descended Trinidians - more likely to drink red cola drink - nostalgia. Indian more likely to drink coca cola. Never expect this is how people are using it.

Politics

Power - transformative capacity - ability to transform a given situation. Always alternative strategies to get by.

Political anthr interested in all powers. 19th century. 3 dif kinds of phases

Western philosophical ideas. Early philosopers assumed the state was the epitome of social power. Thomas Hobbs - to be stateless was to live in total anarchy - war of all against all - state of nature - nasty, poor, brutish, and short. He felt that the state was necessary to rid the anarchy. Early anthrop overturned these views- Louis Henry Morgan - Iriquois - stateless can function very well when governed by kinship societies. Then anthrop focused on kinship societies. Have to focus on every life to see how power is wielded.

For us, Coercion is our means of power. You're going to do it cause I told you to. We tend to think human nature isn't nice. Cooperation is not natural. Everyone is free to pursue their self interest and to challenge one another. Power as coercion. Individuals battling for political control without concern for the needs of other people. Evolution of society - history of devleopment of better and better weapons to keep people in check. Peopl ebelieve in stateless, it must be fear of somehting. Azande witchcraft - but it's not about fear - not actually afraid of witchcraft - woo woo and mysterious - it's just a fact of life - just pissed off, have strategies for dealing with it. People kept in line - persuaded that it'l be better if you're good ppeople. Usually violence of power seeking states that impinges on lives of those in stateless societies.

People submit to power, often coerced, fear consequences if not. People submit because power is legitimate. Marx - some poeple stay in power because they convince their subjects to accept an ideology - false conciousness - duped by leaders. Most people not passive and most people are able to withstand brainwashing. Antonion Branchssdt - coercive domination is difficult to carry out - expensive. More effective to be super persuasive - persuade that rule is legitimate and beneficial - actually provide benefits. Have better schools, healthcare, etc. If ruler successfully achieves, then ruler has achieved a Hegemony - power by persuasion - gotten power by persuading legitimate and then making it legitimate. Challenge between leader and subordinate groups. Counter Hegemony - fighting against (minority groups who haven't been improved). If want to create successful, must mutually sypport both majority and minority. Persuasion > force. Leaders need to be charamastic.

Lecture 29 July 12, 2017

Sri Lanka. Antonio Gramsci. How states establish hegemony or fail to establish. What decisions has the government made in its attempt to establish hegenomy. Sri Lanka. Celon. Majority Sinhalese. Minority Tamils. After gained indepdence from Britain. Sinhalese worked to establish a sense of national unity - rooted in Sinhalese identity and excluded Tamil identity. Sinhalese made official language. Tamils were barred from things and education. Some Tamils wanted separation. Liberation. Bloody Civil War - 1983-2009. Both sides are guilty. Torture and disappearances common, but unpunished. REpressed any Sinhalese who opposed. Domination-focused. Indian troops who were trying to make peace, were attacked by both sides. Ran out of leadership and resources. Some leaders attempted to use persuasion, and have been more successful.

Michel Foucault - French thinker. Biopower and Governmentality. Power in Europe. A new kind of power came into being in 19th century - Bopower/biopolitics. Associated with bodies. Population studies/science. Middle Ages: power based on rule of law. REnnaisance: based on discipline. ##Governance## - how to govern a state. Like how you govern your family, a monastery, etc. Household management was called economy. Politicol economy based on household economy - treat it like a family - know everyone really well. Have to know your subjects, resources. science of statistics was born. Biopolitics relies on measurement. Insurance was born. Census. We don't believe the government. What are the efforts poeple will go to to allude governmentality.

Eluding governmentality. Aiwha Ong - extremely wealthy chinese merchant families. At a time when they were doing extremely well. Focused on different kinds of governmentality - state, chinese kinship, capitalists. Late 18th century - managed to escape China and moved to merchant cities under European control. Traditional obligations that exist in Chinese family structures were cut off. Idea of loyalty was concentrated on immediate family. Power concentrated in power of men. Moving to new cities - submit to other forms of governmentality - were the minority. Main goal - accumulate as much wealth as possible - interested in governmentality fo the marketplace. Moved family members to one country to the next to take opportunities. Finding ways to put their wealth elsewhere so it was less visible to nation state. No longer had any sense of nationalism - post-national - evade governmentality of nation state. Non-elite migrants can't do this. Families widely-dispersed - make do without emotional support.

Europe - The New Europe. One the site of colonialism and exporting its citizens all over the world. Now Europe lays waves of migration (from Syria). In France, ethnocentric assimilationism - give immigrants full rights if they adopt french culture. Britain, pluralism - expect immigrants to be loyal to britain and to be law-abiding citizens, do not imagine them to become british - tolerant of other practices as long as they don't threaten the british way of life. Germany - institutionalize precariousness - referred to as guest workers, and children are not citizens of germany even if born there - difficult to gain German citizenship - they have to give up their citizenship of their other country. Religion - european states have been Christian - these days consider as secular states. France - strict legal separation between church and state. No mix of religion and politics. British - secular, but things still hanging - Anglocan schools have state funding, Irish got state funding for catholic, Muslim got funding for muslim schools. Germany - regular school teaches all religions - how to harmonize religious faith with obligaiton as a citizen.

Stateless societies - Power as an Independent Entity. Power is believed to be an independent entity. Human beings can't have power in themselves. Humans can only gain access to power. Someone has power - they gained access to power. They're not powerful because of access to resources. The resources are the symptom, the sign of their access to power. How do you access power? Balance of forces. You can manipulate power to own ends as long as you don't upset the balance of power. Power through coercion/domination - not done - upsetting the balance of things. Prayer, fasting, ritual - power will take pity on you and give you some. Violence and power are contradictory according to this view. They are free -don't have to submit to various things. Refuse to conform to other people's wishes. Decision-making usually consensus-based (not democracy/majority) - gain permission of everybody. The most respected members are not the most richest/intimidating - the most persuasive speakers, gifted at rhetoric. Pacific - The Big Man complex - most persuasive men with the best memories - can personally appeal to everyone - can mobilize the most resources, not for their own purpose, often poorer than others, gives everything away - prestige - flatten w genorosity. Resist hierarchy. Work against authority. Once official authority, lost autonomy. Institutionalized ways of preventing people from accumulating too much. Floor below which you cannot fall - people will support you, and a ceiling above hwich you can never rise above.

Power of the imagination to interpret your own experience. Why some are resilient in face of crisis and others not? All humans interpret own experience, can reject interpretation of others. Can you break someone's spirit? No. Industrial labourer - factory laborers, coal minors - alienated from work. Tswana migrant labourers - Botswana - mines - not well paid - separated from families for months - treated like crap - Should have deepest scars - most alienated/downtrodden, but not the case. Live pretty meaningful lives despite everything. Metaphors to justify work, bosses were family, contractual, trickster figure - somebody who lives by his wits, made sense of mining experience by using culture to celebrate. They had the power to give meaning of their shitty experiences. Experience may be less important than how we interpret them.

Any hegenomy is always in danger. Dominant population can describe accounts - counterhegemonic discource - hidden transcripts - secret way to talk about something on the down low. Dominated people can transform them with the power to overthrow people in power. Must persuade all people to think hidden transcripts are more accurate. Morocco - people bargaining for reality - people would always challenge him - reality is always open for negotiation - challenging each other to come up with more persuasive accounts. Hidden transcript about what's going on between men and women. Women are less intellgient, self-controlled, and more selfish. Ask women if true in public - yes. But not really. Woman relies on men in life - maintain strong connections with families. Women quick to protect if demands are unerasonable. Submit to reasonable things only. Men are self-centered and childish. Men and women were different worlds. Alternative explanations didn't collide. MArriage negotian - girl refused suitor her father selected for her - men of family said it was selfish - mother didn't openly contradict, said she had good reasons. Women go along, but reasons that they have for doing so isnt the same as the men think.

Meanings of central symbols are negotiable. People sturggle define what they mean. In Morocco nobone denied arranged marriage. Power to invest experience with meaning is an important power to have. What if you're on the bottom. Counter hegemonic narratives exist - a lot of people dont participate in them.

Lecture 30 July 14, 2017

Kinship

Marriage. How people get to be related to one another. Humans need companionship. Need to develop a sense of belonging. How poelpe experience relatedness. Marriage - homo, hetero, monogamous, polygamous, formal vs informal. When people get married, new relationships form. FAmily level - affinal and consanguineal relationships. Affinal relatives - by marriage (in laws). Consanguineal - by blood. Marriage transforms the state of the participants - all or nothing - stipulates degree of sexual access the partners are supposed to have, perpetuates the social patterns of how pepole are related to each other of offspring - creating relationships between the kin. Symbolic marking - rings, etc.

Marriage as a social process. Expected to go live with one set of relatives. If supposed to go live with wife's family - matrilineal (bonds passed down through mothers). Some socities can be very creative - use it to emphasize some social bonds over others. Nuer - ghost marriage. Woman woman marriage where one of the women are recognized as a man. The woman man may be because no more men in her family. If she can access the cattle, then she can pay the bride wealth of a woman and marry a woman, then be considered as a man, father of any children the wife has but will not be biologically the father. Ghost marriage - patrilineal - if a man dies without sons, he's going to be an angry spirit - his relatives arrange a woman to marry his ghost - ghost considered to be the father of any children the woman has - then appoint another man to be the actual husband. Socially solves a problem but ends up creates a problem. Lays foundation for future ghost marriages - the guy is having children unde the ghost's name. Nuer distinguish between biological and social father - they don't care who the biological father is. 1. Levirate - a widow - has to be remarried, remarried to brother of dead husband, or other close relative. 2. Sororate - wife dies, man marries one of her sisters, cousins, someone who can stand in for them. Useful when marriage payments are substantial - don't want to pay back all of the stuff. Provide another one instead of paying back. If there are children, and mother does, instead of evil stepmother, it's their aunt.

##Endogamy## - marriage inside a group. ##Exogamy## - marriage outside a group. Pressure to marry inside ethnic group or religious group. Social, class. People who are off limits - your family. In some society you can marry cousins, but only certain kinds. Can never marry father, mother, etc. Village exogamy, etc.

Expectations of where they should live. Neolocal - move out on their own. Most popular - patrilocal - new couple lives with the family of the man. Matrilocal - with family of woman. Avunculocal - lives with the family of the husband's mother's brother. Duolocal - with their own family separate. Ambilocal - live with one side, then other, then choose which one.

Monogamy and Polygamy. Number of spouses you have varies. Canada/US - 1 spouse at a time. Most common - monogamy. Polygamy - more than 1 spouse. Polygyny - the man can have more than 1 spouse. Some socities have no limit. King of Swaziland - over 50. Muslim - maximum of 4 wives, and only if you can provide for all. Demographic problem - run out of women - only the wealthy, privileged get many. Polyandry - woman can have more than 1 spouse - controlling a woman's fertility than sexuality. Limited numbr of children for 1 woman. Reducing the number of potential children. Tibet, Southern India, Sri Lanka, Amazonian rainforest, Northern Nigeria. Fraternal polyandry - a group of brothers all marry the same woman - all of brothers are considered as father, no jealousy, strong family solidarity - inheritance - equally to all sons - don't want to break it up - keep land in same family - rotate roles. Kept population down, but end up with a lot of single women - many end up in monasteries or city with a job. Associated Polyandry - men involved are not brothers - Sinhalese - start out monagomous, later on a 2nd husband is brought in, but first is senior, both men are fathers, resourses coming in from both, trio may take a 2nd wife (Polygynandry). Alliance-intensifying - enhance ties within families. Secondary marriage - Alliance-proliferative - creating larger network of people you're related to - super complicated. Northern Nigeria and C.... divorce not permitted, but can marry another one. When woman gets married, first person is friend of father's, marries another man, lives with 2nd man, she can only live with 1 husband at the time. She goes back to all of the households because patrilineal - children remain with their fathers. Have to leave kids behind. Men also have more than 1 wife. As children, get a rotating string of mothers.

Economic exchange. Exchange of goods. ##BRide-wealth## - transfer of money/goods from family of groom to family of bride - compensating family of bride for loss of her labour and children. Common in patrilineal societies, farming/hering society. Women's labour is really valued. Frquently cattle. Used to marry off the girl's brother. Marry off daughter first to pay it to someboyd else to marry their son. close ties between brothers and sisters. ##Dowry## - bride's family to the groom's family - inheritence for women - when a girl gets married, she gets everything she would have inherited from parents death - agricultural societies, africa (islam). A woman's dowry is contribution to the marriage. Ensures a woman will continue to live in the style she's accustomed to. If divorced, there are provisions to what will happen to her dowry. Well-known in India, but illegal - often associated with violence. Rajputs - villiage exogamy - hypergomous - woman has to marry up, how you are treated is determine dby your dowry - selective infant neglect -- passive infanticide - neglect until they die - of female children - expensive to marry off too many daughters - nowadays abortion. Dowry death - marriage, dowry given to groom's side, groom's side continues to make demands for more, harass the bride, girl may be murdered by husband's family or she may commit suicide (doesn't want family to be impoverished) - kitchen fires - covered with kerosene, her robe catches on fire and will die - can't assign blame. A lot unreported, but burned young women in hospitals is higher than dowry violence reports.

Family Structure. A woman/man and her dependent children. Conjugal family - the parents looking after children are married. Non-conjugal families - siblings raising children - dual - brothers/sisters raise the children and are not married. The Massuo in China - non-conjugal - Walking Marriage - woman takes lovers, lover comes to house at night, but he doesnt live with her, she lives with her family, her brothers are there, but they go at night to their lovers. Easy to stop walking to lover - divorce is easy.

Nuclear family. 2 parents and their offspring living to each other - the American prototype. Only 25% of NA live in this arrangement. A lot of people's parents get divorced. Grandparents is extended family -> not nuclear. Immortlized on sitcoms - sibling rivalry, strong ties of affections, conflicts,

Lecture 31 July 17, 2017

Polygynous Families. 1 man with more than 1 spouse. Lots of children. Different dynamics. Each wife has a relationship with husband and co-wives. Children compete with half-siblings more than siblings. Limited resources. Wives are competitive with each other. Could have good relationships, but often there's a lot of competition. For time, attention, affection, resources of the same man. Children - diff relationships with own mothers and other mothers. Husband has limited time, resources. More resources - jealousy and conflict. Can be harmonious.

##Extended family## - 3 generations living together (grandparents, parent, children). ##Joint family## - group of brothers and sisters living with their children. Matrilineal - usually group of sisters. Patrilineal - group of brothers - daughters get married off. When patriarch dies, eldest son inherits. Other sons stay or move out and establish new joint households. ##Blended family## - new in NA. Any combination of a couple and their children and any children that couple has from previous marriages. Divorce wasn't that easy - used to be because 1 of the spouses died. Internal dynamics can resemble those of a polygonous family - ex partners still involved - competition for resources.

Brother-sister relationships. Other societies - are more important and have to do to with relationships. Our society - husband and wife. Other societies - prototype of male/female relationship is brother and sister. Ashanti. Matrilineal. You wait till your uncle gets home. Brother has more authority than the father because brother has the same lineage. Those kids don't belong to father's lineage, not descendants of father. A man - Would you rather your sister have children or you have children - would rather sister - carry on their lineage. A man trusts his sister more than his wife. Wives and sisters are always at odds - sisters dropping in and making sure they're being good wives. What is this man going to do for my children? Husbands and wives don't live together. Brothers and siters in patrilineal - bridewealth - man depends on sister to marry first to pay for his own marriage. Results in close relationships between adjacent sister/brother.

Families of choice - families that people who choose themselves - not based on blood. Gay, lesbian, trans in NA. "Blood is thicker than water". Not true as people will become disowned. Blood ties are not as enduring as they're supposed to be. Create new ties. Adoption - nurturance - people who nurture you instead of people who give birth to you.

Divorce and Remarriage. Most societies - able to terminate a marriage. Back then - man had to agreee he had to admit he committed to adultery even if he didn't to get divorced. Take photos with some hired woman for evidence of infidelity. Neuer - Pull plug as fast as you can. When a couple gets divorced, bridewealth has to be returned as it gets recycled. Have to return everything - could collapse a number of marriages - cattle pulled from marriages. Fulbe - easy - man say "I divorce you" in front of witness under muslim law. Divorce happens a lot. Preferred marriage pattern - want man marry fathers brothers daughter - couple gets married to please family, then divorce quickly. Often big age gap. Woman can neglect domestic duties, take off, or refuse to sleep with him - he will divorce her.
In Malaui - not liking partner is not grounds for divorce. If man does not financially support wife/children, if woman does not do domestic duties, refuses to slepe with him, impotent, infertile. Infidelity - if woman, man divorces. If man, woman will think carefully. Ju'hoansi - infedelity is not grounds for divorce - people cna have lovers - if 1 is ok. If everyone, not ok.

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Systems of Relatedness. Mating = marriage. Birth = descent. Nurturance - adoption. Not set in stone - can mate with someone you're not married to. Can put your child for adoption - does it mean no further links? Open adoption. Foster a child - not legally parent. What if parents don't get married when born. In past, illegitimate - cannot inherit. King Henry 8. Surrogacy, artificial insemination. Who counts as the parent? Lots of laws. Selective. Some socities - trace through women or men or both. Can adopt anybody- a brother, sister, a parent, etc. "Aunt" - don't know who you're talking about - father's siter, stepmother's, family friend, etc. Kinship terms in other societies is more specific. We lump all people together in terms of importance. How should we recruit new group members? Where should people live? How should dif generations relate to each other? How should we pass on possessions?

We reckon kin - Bilateral Descent. Organize according to parent-child links. Believe equally descended from father/mother. All relatives of single person.

UNilineal descent - through either father/mother's side. One side is more culturally important. Patrilineal vs MAtrilineal.

Bilateral - flexible. Small scale hunting gathering. Conservative. Ju/'hoansi - move around and search for food - if friction - don't fight and hang out with uncke;'s band. everyone has a lot of kin on either side. Not helpful where you need clear boundaries between who's in the in group and out group. Perpetuate social order over generations, or want war, need kin.

Unilineal - some parent hcild links are more important. May be close to mom, but not part of her clan. Patrilineal - male sex links. Matrilinea - female sex links. Lineage - group of peoplw ho think they can specify all parent child relationships. Corporate identity - lineage is an actor - a unit - any one member of lineage is equivalent to any other member (liveritt and sorverate - man's wife dies, can marry sister). Vengeance practices that makes no sense to us - if one from 1 lineage, kills 1 of yours, can kill anyone you can get, not necess the stabber. Huge problem to not have a lineage, have no political/legal status. As long as peole can remember who they're descended from, then lineage can survive.

Most common: Patrilineage - father-son duo. Wives may still have interest in natal lineage. Men tend to believe theya re superior to women. Without women, there are no sons. Every patrilineage depends on the people who don't belong to it - the women. A women's children are not her own, belong to husband. Always patriarchal
In matrilineage - mans chidlren. Group of brothers and sisters who are linked trhough women. Brothers marry out and stay in fmaily of wives, but maintain interest in their lineage. Never matriarchal. Frequently egaliterain or close to it. Men - political power, but women could still be cheifs. Women monopolized ritual power - balance things out. Senior brother. Not a lot. Navaho, Iriquois. West AFrica - ashanti. Central africa.

6 different kinship patterns. Basic difference: How you classify your cousins. Sudanese - most complicated. Eskimo - english language. Hawaii - everyone same in generation.

Lecture 32 July 19, 2017

Kinship and Alliance. Kinship and marriage linked. People try to perserve multiple relationships through multiple generations. Unilineal - want to ensure long term relationships - marry into them over and over again for alliance. Prescriptive/prescribed marriage - don't have to, but preferred. ##Matrilateral cross-cousin marriage## - on your mother's side if you were a man. ##patrilateral cross-cousin marriage## - father's sisters man. From perspective of the man. Patri - direct exchange. 2 lines - get a wife, give a wife. Doesn't have to be your father's sister's daughter, could be father's cousin's daughter. Just someone in the same line. Matrilateral - common in world - asymmetric exchange - marriages do not balance out over generations. Wives found in mother's line. Matrilateral - permanent alliance. FZD - father sisters daughter. MBD - mother's brother's daughter.

Kinship and Practice. Rules. Puts us in roles. YOu can pick your friends, but you don't get to pick your family. Can channel alliances. Channel opposition, rivalry. Social positions assigned at birth - ascribed positions. When you're born, you're automatically a son, daughter, cousin, etc. If you're a king, child also a princess. Other statuses are achieved. Adoption - turn them into your son/daughter. Adoption very common among circumpolar people (north) - frequently overrides biology. Everyone knows their real parents. Inuit - every single person in the group had been adopted or grown up in a household where someone else was adopted. Adopted because they wanted to, had too many children of one sex, cause all of my brothers/sisters have adopted. Child can decide how much contact with biological. Some don't want any, some had shared activities. Biological became relationship of choice. Problem if ignore adoptive parents.

Beyond kinship. Friendship. Distinguish between friends and family. Family friends can become family (aunts, uncles). Friends are close with us frequently - bond is less official. They're bonds of choice. Don't like somebody, don't be their friend. May become so close and they be like brothers/sisters. Friendship is important. Move around a lot - new friends may be your support. Friends can be better than family or worse. Family - obligation. Friendship - no obligation. Camaroon - friends more highly valued. Friends will never owe you money because they have family for that, and will never bewitch you. Friends will always be your friends and equals. Between you and kin - always requality in status, generation. Institutionalized group of friends - anyone born on the same day as yourself is automatically your friend (day of week). Bushman. Not a lot of names. If someone shares same name - they're equivalent. Sodalities - groups that cut across other ties (kinship, lineage, tribes, etc.). An age set. Group of poepl einitiated together - will be a sodality - bond - can always count on someone.

Sexual practices. Marriage involves sex. For women - marriage is prerequisite of sex. Main reason to get married. Vast range of sexual practices. In some society, sexual practices at early age. Limited after marriage, but can take 1 lover - everyone knows it - must be discrete. Sexual satisfaction is highly valued. Other cultures are less open/knowledgeable. Brazilian amazon - they know about woman having orgasm but not sought after - if it happens, it's an accident. Other societies, female orgasm not known at all. Many societies have rules on virginity upon getting married. Some societies - marriage cant go forward unless you can prove it - need a bloody sheet. Sexual taboos - taboos on sex on post partum period - We have a 6 week period - abstinence. Dani of New guinea - 5 years of abstinence - most men only 1 spouse - not that interested in sex. Not all sexual practices map onto western heterosexual model - different ideas of homosexuality. Men who engaged in sexual activity with other men was not homosexual unless they were bottom role - top role was not homosexual.

Social inequality

Stratified society - permanent hierarchy/inequalities. Some groups have more access than others. Some societies are more stratified than others. State societies have more elaborate stratification. Lot of dif ranked categories.

Lecture 33 July 21, 2017

Race. Race has not always existed. No race until 15th century. Europeans sailing to try to get to West, decided to go East to go West. Ran into Americas. Importation of African slaves. Lighter-skinned Europeans took over darker-skinned. Came up with various explanations for why they loooked different - turned into attempt to justify why they should dominate them. NAtural kinds - races - based on phenotype. People who belonged to the same race were supposed to share the same characteristics. You can judge a book by it's cover. Started out as a racialism, wasn't initially racist, but married to Great Chain of Being. Europeans believed that human races could be ranked. Australian-Aboriginees - lowest rank. Race is not a biological entity. Greater differences within races than there are between them. Race is a social category - way of categorizing people based on what they look like. Let's people pretend that their judgements are based on biology. Solidified in 16th century. Not monolithic. Categories within race. White people - some believe they are better than other white people - white trash. Immigration - blurs boundaries. South Africa - within white, that there were british-southafricans and dutch south africans - not the same.

System of rice in Colonial Oaxaca, Mexico. In Canada - 1 drop principle - if you have 1 drop that's not white, you are that other thing. Mixed population after conquest. Indigenous conquered by Spanish. Mexico as already composed of different Indigenous groups - states were stratified so Aztec society was on top. Within, there was noble and peasant class. Spanish came from stratified society - 3 estates, clergy, nobility, etc. "Oh that's kind of like what we have." They introduced black african slaves into their region. Assigned people to estates based on appearance. In Theory: still noble and clergy but reserved for spanish people. Indigenous were part of commoner class. Black African slaves were below. Exceptions: indigenous nobility were special. When spanish colonizers came, didn't bring women - formed unions with women there. Any children were considered spanish if marriage. If no marriage, considered indigenous. A lot of mixing. Mixed people were not supposed to exist, but there were too many of them to ignore and they took on important rules in society. Systema of Castes. Mestitos - mixed indigenous, spanish. Malatos - And african with anything else. Mestitos > Malatos but below Spaniards. If married - Espanolas. Most malatos could be enslaved, some became free. Castitsos - mixed mesittos and spanish. Racial status became an achieve status. Anybody of mixed descent - could achieve a certain status. Act of getting married - priest had to register marriage and write down waht casta - they were entered as the same casta. Marry somebody lighter skinned enough that they priest would elevate both parties. Creole casta got larger and larger. Over time, created a wider acceptibility of phenotypes. So many were marrying into it as a social strategy.

Ethnicity. A social group whose members distinguish themselves on the basis of their ethnicity. Ethnicity - principle of social classification based on distinct cutlural features. A newer common phenomena. Dif cultural grousp all over the place banded together within a single political boudnary. Born when 1 or 2 of ethnic groups are privileged at the expensve of others. Occurs a lot under capitalist colonialism. Ethnic groups remain as ethnic groups or over time become classes - less about cultural and more about income bracket. Creation of cultural groups that previously did not exist. Adn then cultural groups that were different being merged. Camaroon - colonized by everybody repeatedly - Germans, French, British. They couldn't be bothered to figure out the tribal distinctions. Relied on local muslim chiefs to explain distinctions - Lumped a bunch of groups as Pagans. Colonists just referred to them the same. Ended up developing a common identity. Ethnic identities can become nested - different groups referred to as tribes - super tribes being created - British just made cheifs. Shawna and the ibimfid - major tribes in Zimbabwe - smaller ethnic groups began to flock to one or the other to resist white settlers in the war of independence. I'm Tonga but identify with Shawna but also I'm African.

Line between ethnicity and race. Fine line. When you have both, probably more tlaking about race. If members of dominant group use ethnicity, then it becomes racialized. 19th century - Northern Europeans - Racialize ethic religious and class difference between west/east/souh europeans. Irish, Jews, italieans, poles as being less than them. Moved to the new world. GRoups cast themselves as ethnic groups again. Irish were discriminated - moved to Boston and discrimianted - over time, recast themselves as ethnic group and not stigmatized race. Not open to everybody, some will always be on the bottom. Racialized europeans can ethnicize on us/canadian soil. American/Canadian blacks were never granted this privilege - colour bar prevented. Caste like system of racism.

Ethnic Violence. Ethnic identification and racism. ##Objectification## - make something into an object. Intentional cosnruction of a collective public identity - produces ethnicity. Ethnic identities are evoked situationally. If situation calls for it, will evoke ethnic identity - I will order the food for this restaurant cause I speak the language. demanding ethnic rights. Performance-based - people perform their ethnic identities. Don't lead to violence. Reification - process of making something real. Take something that doesn't exist but you turn it into a real thing (race). Racial negative absolutism. Make it real and use it to discriminate other people. Distorting. Essentialist. Doesn't consider people can have multiple/nested identity. When trying to avoid violent confrontations - distinguish between the two. Ethnic identifications are valid. When people talk about ethnic identity - sounds more racist - race. Racism is more violent.

Nationalism. Nation states are new - only since french revolution - discredited the divine right of kings. Kings root political authroity in a nation to justify. Nations - more about identity - associated with territories - poltiical terrtory + national identity. Asssociated with rise of capitlalism. Be for communists or democracy. End of cold war, Berlin Wall fell - scramble of newly independent states. Ideology of nation state - every nation is entitled to its own state. Any state can be turne dinto a national if its citizens can be made to adopt a nationality. Nation-building - nationalism - get people to be patriotic. Ethnic identification is one way to do it. But then you have minority groups that don't identify - if enough, can be a threat - can demand their own state (Quebec). WE get hegenomy - incorporating cultural stuff... Canada - billingual even if most of us aren't. Practices of subordinate groups are marginalized, devalued.

All are culturlaly constructed. A lot of poeple talk about them as if they're not, as if they're natural/biological

Australian Nationalism. Colony of britain. Prototype: based on british descendants - Australian stereotype. Aboriginees were excluded from this identity. Finder's keepers. Property. If no one was improving land, then no one there. All Australian aborignees were foragers. Settlers viewed aboriginess were a dying race and killed them. Australians are beginning to rethink national identity - 1 hand, debate about affirming right sof aboriginees. Struggling to consturct a Pan... identity. Mabo Decision - rejected notion of terrinolias. Construct multicultural identity. Problems: some white australians reject it, some are unhappy.

Natrualizing Discourses. Use discourses that are naturlizing to talk about them. Take something not naturla and make it seem natural. Represent particular identities as if it was the result of nature. Makes it appear the identity to be eternal and unchanging. Justified on somebody by some sort of shared bodily substance - blood. Theoretical shared ancestry. Genetics and shared blood. Used by nation states to create national identity. Ue trees as national symbols - Maple leaf - rooted in soil of territory. Kinship - motherland, fatherland. Map of nation. Deny natural rights to the land of the people who were already there and now claims ame natural that "oh hey we're still here so we're rooted in this land more than peopl ewho were originally here."

Lecture 34 July 24, 2017

Essentialized Identities - peole who are using naturalized discourses to try and create a sense that whatever kind of identity they're talking about is natural and rooted in biology. Used to do bad things to indigenous people - they suffer the most. Paradox - these essentializing discourses can end up being accepted and turned around in indigenous peoples of a way of establishing identity. Yes, there is something special about us, but it's positive and this is why we should fight back. Creates Pan-indigenous groups. Uniting to create an identity. Essentialist rhetoric can be used legally. By aboriginal activists may not reflect what they actually believe about their identity - strategic essentialism - conscious political strategy. Most activists know that that it's false. Can be away to get stuff from the government because a lot of people accept them. Double bind. If you want concessions, have to make a certain claim that may be offensive to yourself. If you don't make the claim that way, you don't get the concessions.

Nationalism. A lot of positive things - redrawing of political boundaries - decolonization. Borders of kenya (english) and tanzania(german). Deciding to where to draw a line - I'll let you have kilimanjaro for your birthday gift. Not everything has been posititve. Ruling groups of some nations can committed some nasty things to enforce their vision of national identity. After WW2, shocked to learn about nazi programs. Most people at the time hoped that the holocaust would never happen again. Holocaust was an extreme example of genocide. But in many other parts of the world, nationalism attempts to exterminate people. When you have a nation, its possible to do mass extermination. If you're stateless, big problem. States may use violence. Former Yugoslavia. Rwanda. Nobody did anyting about it. DArfur, East Timor - indonesian island. Syria. Southern Sudan. ISIS. Ethnocide, Genocide - modern. Could not have happened on the same scale in the past.

Shoulda lead into chap 15. not doing it.

Exam. 100 questions. M/C. Linguistics, sociocultural anth. Focus on 4 fields - ethnographic methods - not as many questions cause not fullblown. Socio-cultural - applications - give example. Knowledge testing - do you know the material. Less jargon. Know the terms. Cross cousins vs parallel cousins. Polyandry vs Polygeny. Domination vs ehgenomy. Do you know what a mode of production is - what they are. Know specific examples we've talked about. Groups of peoplea round the world. "Caste system in India. TRobian islanders. Bronslaw Malinoski - what did he study? what are they famous for? Know the ethnographic examples - the tribes. Famous anthropologists - what they're famous for. Know the theories.

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